Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Phase and stress evolution of Si swarf in the diamond-coated wire sawing of Si ingots

  • 152 Accesses

  • 1 Citations


Diamond-coated wire (DCW) sawing of Si solar ingots generates swarf which is analyzed using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two types of Si swarf are found. Particulate swarf is crystalline and shows residual compressive stress. Fibrillar swarf is amorphous and shows residual tensile stress. The origin of particulate, crystalline swarf is attributed to brittle machining, while the origin of fibrillar, amorphous swarf is attributed to ductile machining. Finite element modeling suggests that brittle machining resulting in particulate, crystalline swarf generation is initiated by sharp diamond microparticles. On the other hand, ductile machining resulting in fibrillar, amorphous swarf generation is caused by blunt diamond microparticles. Over the course of sawing, the ratio of crystalline/amorphous phase in swarf decreases, quantifying the average loss in sharpness of diamond microparticles. Thus, micro-Raman spectroscopy can be an effective analytical tool for quantifying and monitoring DCW sawing processes for Si solar ingots.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Luque A, Hegedus S (2011) Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, Chichester

  2. 2.

    J.I. Bye, L. Norheim, B. Holme, O. Nielsen, S. Steinsvik, S.A. Jensen, G. Fragiacomo, I. Lombardi, Industrialised diamond wire wafer slicing for high efficiency solar cells, in: H. Ossenbrink, A. Jager-Waldau, P. Helm (Eds.) Proceedings of the 26th European International Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy, 2011, pp. 956–960.

  3. 3.

    J. Bye, S.A. Jensen, F. Aalen, C. Rohr, O. Nielsen, B. Gaumann, J. Hodsden, K. Lindemann, Silicon slicing with diamond wire for commerical production of PV wafers, in: 24th European photovoltaic solar energy conference, Hamburg, 2009, pp. 1269–1272.

  4. 4.

    I. Lombardi, G. Fragiacomo, C. Zehetmeier, J. Bye, O. Nielsen, C. Rohr, B. Gaumann, A. Kunzli, High yield recylcing process of silcion kerf from diamond wire wafering, in: 24th European photovoltaic solar energy conference Hambrug, 2009, pp. 1256–1258.

  5. 5.

    Arif M, Rahman M, San WY (2012) A state-of-the-art review of ductile cutting of silicon wafers for semiconductor and microelectronics industries. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63:481–504

  6. 6.

    Arefin S, Li XP, Cai MB, Rahman M, Liu K, Tay A (2007) The effect of the cutting edge radius on a machined surface in the nanoscale ductile mode cutting of silicon wafer. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 221:213–220

  7. 7.

    Arefin S, Li XP, Rahman M, Liu K (2007) The upper bound of tool edge radius for nanoscale ductile mode cutting of silicon wafer. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 31:655–662

  8. 8.

    Li XP, He T, Rahman M (2005) Tool wear characteristics and their effects on nanoscale ductile mode cutting of silicon wafer. Wear 259:1207–1214

  9. 9.

    Liu K, Li XP, Rahman M, Neo KS, Liu XD (2007) A study of the effect of tool cutting edge radius on ductile cutting of silicon wafers. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 32:631–637

  10. 10.

    Uddin MS, Seah KHW, Rahman M, Li XP, Liu K (2007) Performance of single crystal diamond tools in ductile mode cutting of silicon. J Mater Process Technol 185:24–30

  11. 11.

    Cai MB, Li XP, Rahman M (2007) High-pressure phase transformation as the mechanism of ductile chip formation in nanoscale cutting of silicon wafer. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 221:1511–1519

  12. 12.

    Jasinevicius RG, Duduch JG, Montanari L, Pizani PS (2012) Dependence of brittle-to-ductile transition on crystallographic direction in diamond turning of single-crystal silicon. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 226:445–458

  13. 13.

    Pizani PS, Jasinevicius R, Duduch JG, Porto AJV (1999) Ductile and brittle modes in single-point-diamond-turning of silicon probed by Raman scattering. J Mater Sci Lett 18:1185–1187

  14. 14.

    Komanduri R, Chandrasekaran N, Raff LM (1998) Effect of tool geometry in nanometric cutting: a molecular dynamics simulation approach. Wear 219:84–97

  15. 15.

    Yan JW, Syoji K, Tamaki J (2003) Some observations on the wear of diamond tools in ultra-precision cutting of single-crystal silicon. Wear 255:1380–1387

  16. 16.

    Holt A, Thogersen A, Rohr C, Bye J, Helgesen G, Nordseth O, Jensen SA, Norheim L, Nielsen O (2010) Surface structure of mono-crystalline silicon wafers produced by diamond wire sawing and by standard slurry sawing before and after etching in alkaline solutions. 2010 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. doi:10.1109/pvsc.2010.5614103

  17. 17.

    Sopori B, Devayajanam S, Shet S, Guhabiswas D, Basnyat P, Moutinho H, Gedvilas L, Jones K, Binns J, Appel J (2013) Characterizing damage on Si wafer surfaces cut by slurry and diamond wire sawing. 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. doi:10.1109/pvsc.2013.6744298

  18. 18.

    Wu H, Melkote SN, Danyluk S (2012) Mechanical Strength of Silicon Wafers Cut by Loose Abrasive Slurry and Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Sawing. Adv Eng Mater 14:342–348

  19. 19.

    Yu X, Wang P, Li X, Yang D (2012) Thin Czochralski silicon solar cells based on diamond wire sawing technology. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 98:337–342

  20. 20.

    Yang J, Banerjee S, Wu J, Myung Y, Rezvanian O, Banerjee P (2016) Phase and stress evolution in diamond microparticles during diamond-coated wire sawing of Si ingots. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82:1675–1682

  21. 21.

    Lewis IR, Edwards HGM (2001) Handbook of Raman spectroscopy : from the research laboratory to the process line. Marcel Dekker, New York

  22. 22.

    Gogotsi Y, Baek C, Kirscht F (1999) Raman microspectroscopy study of processing-induced phase transformations and residual stress in silicon. Semicond Sci Technol 14:936–944

  23. 23.

    Hopcroft MA, Nix WD, Kenny TW (2010) What is the Young’s Modulus of Silicon? J Microelectromech Syst 19:229–238

  24. 24.

    Domnich V, Gogotsi Y (2001) Handbook of surfaces and interfaces of materials (Series Editor, Hari S. Nalwa). Academic, San Diego

  25. 25.

    Hull R (2006) Properties of Crystalline Silicon. Institution of Electrical Engineers, London

  26. 26.

    Properties of Crystalline Silicon (1999) emis Datareviews series, vol 20. Inspec, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, United Kingdom

  27. 27.

    Dewolf I (1996) Micro-Raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits. Semicond Sci Technol 11:139–154

  28. 28.

    Dewolf I, Maes HE, Jones SK (1996) Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: bridging the gap between theory and experiment. J Appl Phys 79:7148–7156

  29. 29.

    Kailer A, Gogotsi YG, Nickel KG (1997) Phase transformations of silicon caused by contact loading. J Appl Phys 81:3057–3063

  30. 30.

    Domnich V, Gogotsi Y, Dub S (2000) Effect of phase transformations on the shape of the unloading curve in the nanoindentation of silicon. Appl Phys Lett 76:2214–2216

  31. 31.

    Lawn B, Wilshaw R (1975) Indentation Fracture - Principles And Applications. J Mater Sci 10:1049–1081

  32. 32.

    Hao W, Melkote SN (2012) Study of ductile-to-brittle transition in single grit diamond scribing of silicon: application to wire sawing of silicon wafers. J Eng Mater technol 134(4):041011 (041018 pp.)-041011 (041018 pp.). doi:10.1115/1.4006177

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Parag Banerjee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Banerjee, S., Yang, J., Wu, J. et al. Phase and stress evolution of Si swarf in the diamond-coated wire sawing of Si ingots. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89, 735–742 (2017).

Download citation


  • Swarf
  • Diamond-coated wire sawing
  • Si ingots