Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Arc characteristics and metal transfer behavior of twin-arc integrated cold wire hybrid welding

  • 259 Accesses

  • 4 Citations


Twin-wire arc served as a high-efficient technology has been fully developed and widely used in the manufacturing industry. In order to further increase welding deposition rate, a novel high-efficient welding system entitled twin-arc integrated cold wire hybrid welding was proposed in this paper. The study focuses on the effect of welding electrical parameters on alternative arcing and metal transfer process for the purpose of optimizing electrical parameters to realize a stable welding process. Characteristics of the metal transfer processes and the influence mechanism of welding electrical parameters on metal transfer modes were studied. The results showed that the two leading wires kept regularly alternative arcing with the phase difference of 180° between the pulse currents supplied to wires, and the alternating frequency increased with arc voltage and welding current. Besides, the metal transfer modes were divided into three types by varying welding parameters: short circuiting transfer, projected transfer, and streaming transfer. What is more important, the metal transfer mode highly depended on arc length, which was determined by arc voltage when welding current was kept constant. The metal transfer mode would change from short circuiting transfer to projected transfer, and then converted into streaming transfer eventually with the increase of arc voltage.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Layus P, Kah P, Martikainen J, Gezha VV, Bishokov RV (2014) Multi-wire SAW of 640 MPa Arctic shipbuilding steel plates. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75(5–8):771–782

  2. 2.

    Bajcer B, Hrzenjak M, Pompe K, Jez B (2007) Improvement of energy and materials efficiencies by introducing multiple-wire welding. Metalurgija 46(1):47–52

  3. 3.

    Kah P, Suoranta R, Martikainen J (2013) Advanced gas metal arc welding processes. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(1–4):655–674

  4. 4.

    Tusek J (2004) Mathematical modelling of melting rate in arc welding with a triple-wire electrode. J Mater Process Technol 146(3):415–423

  5. 5.

    Lee KB, Kim C, Kim DS (2013) High deposition rate pulse gas metal arc welding for Al 5083 thick plate. Proc IME B J Eng Manufact 227(6):848–854

  6. 6.

    Fang CF, Meng XH, Hu QX, Wang FJ, Ren H, Wang HS, Guo Y, Mao M (2012) TANDEM and GMAW twin wire welding of Q690 steel used in hydraulic support. J Iron Steel Res Int 19(5):79–85

  7. 7.

    Scotti A, Morais C, Vilarinho L (2006) The effect of out-of-phase pulsing on metal transfer in twin-wire GMA welding at high current level—an investigation into deposit transfer and arc characteristics revealed conventional nonpulsing machines are capable of providing quality weldments. Weld J 85(10):225S–230S

  8. 8.

    Michie K, Blackman S, Ogunbiyi TEB (1999) Twin wire GMAW: process characteristics and applications. Weld J 78(5):31–34

  9. 9.

    Chen DS, Chen MA, Wu CS (2015) Effects of phase difference on the behavior of arc and weld pool in tandem P-GMAW. J Mater Process Technol 225:45–55

  10. 10.

    Qin GL, Meng XM, Fu BL (2015) High speed tandem gas tungsten arc welding process of thin stainless steel plate. J Mater Process Technol 220:58–64

  11. 11.

    Kiran DV, Cho DW, Lee HK, Kang CY, Na SJ (2015) A study on the quality of two-wire tandem submerged arc welds under iso-heat input conditions. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78(1–4):53–62

  12. 12.

    Yokota Y, Shimizu H, Nagaoka S, Ito K, Arita H (2012) Development and application of the 3-electrode MAG high-speed horizontal fillet welding process. Weld World 56(1–2):43–47

  13. 13.

    Arita H, Morimoto T, Nagaoka S, Nakano T (2009) Development of advanced 3-electrode MAG high-speed horizontal fillet welding process. Weld World 53(5–6):35–43

  14. 14.

    Raudsepp H (2015) Integrated cold electrode—latest advancement in submerged arc welding. Electr Weld Mach 45(5):28–32

  15. 15.

    Xiang T, Li H, Wei HL, Gao Y (2015) Effects of filling status of cold wire on the welding process stability in twin-arc integrated cold wire hybrid welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. Article in press. doi:10.1007/s00170-015-7686-x

  16. 16.

    Li P (2009) Research of GMAW-P droplet transfer cooperated control. Dissertation, Shandong University

  17. 17.

    Wei HL, Li H, Yang LJ, Gao Y, Ding XP (2015) Arc characteristics and metal transfer process of hybrid laser double GMA welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 77(5–8):1019–1028

  18. 18.

    Scotti A, Ponomarev V, Lucas W (2012) A scientific application oriented classification for metal transfer modes in GMA welding. J Mater Process Technol 212(6):1406–1413

  19. 19.

    Miao YG, Xu XF, Wu BT, Han DF, Zeng Y, Wang T (2015) Effects of bypass current on arc characteristics and metal transfer behaviour during MIG-TIG double sided arc welding. J Mater Process Technol 224:40–48

  20. 20.

    Tipi ARD, Sani SKH, Pariz N (2015) Improving the dynamic metal transfer model of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76(1–4):657–668

  21. 21.

    Cao MQ, Zou ZD, Zhang SS, Qu SY (2011) Metal transfer of twin-wire indirect arc argon welding. Rare Met Mater Eng 40:156–159

  22. 22.

    Zhu M, Shi Y, Fan D (2015) Analysis and improvement of metal transfer behaviors in consumable double-electrode GMAW process. J Manuf Sci Eng-Trans ASME 137(1):1–5

  23. 23.

    Yin SY (2008) Basic and application of gas metal arc welding. China Machine Press, Bei Jin

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to H. L. Wei.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xiang, T., Li, H., Wei, H.L. et al. Arc characteristics and metal transfer behavior of twin-arc integrated cold wire hybrid welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87, 2653–2663 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8663-8

Download citation


  • Alternative arcing
  • Short circuiting transfer
  • Projected transfer
  • Streaming transfer
  • Metal transfer mode