Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Size effect in gas forming a hot-bent AA5xxx V-shaped trough trimmed for an airplane strakelet skin panel


Superplastic forming or gas forming is favorable method for the manufacture of sheet metal for making airplane skin panels. However, a major challenge in applying this method is controlling the thickness distribution in the formed product. Here, we explore a hot-bending-assisted process for gas forming of a deep trough with a complex shape for use in airplane wings. We propose the deliberate arrangement of wrinkles to achieve uniform thickness distribution. Because full-scale experiments are costly, sub-scale specimens are preferred for collecting experimental data. In linking sub-scale data to full-scale manufacturing, the size effect on wrinkle formation sites is important. The cause of the pre-form contour and larger-size specimen could be the greater variations in contour modes due to plastic buckling during the pre-forming stage.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Barnes AJ (2007) Superplastic forming 40 years and still growing. J Mater Eng Perform 16(4):440–454

  2. 2.

    Ghosh AK, Bieler TR (1998) Superplasticity and superplastic forming. Miner Metals Mater Soc

  3. 3.

    McNelley TR, Ishi KO, Zhilyaev AP, Swaminathan S, Krajewski PE, Taleff EM (2008) Characteristics of the transition from grain-boundary sliding to solute drag creep in superplastic AA5083. Metall Mater Trans A 39(1):50–64

  4. 4.

    Kim C, Kruger GA (2006) High throughput quick-plastic-forming. US7028519 B2

  5. 5.

    Schroth JG (2004) General motors quick plastic forming process. Advances in superplasticity and superplastic forming Symposium 9–20

  6. 6.

    Liu J, Tan MJ, Aue-u-lan Y, Jarfors AEW, Fong KS, Castagne S (2011) Superplastic-like forming of non-superplastic AA5083 combined with mechanical pre-forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 52:123–129

  7. 7.

    Liu J, Tan MJ, Lim CVS, Chua BW (2013) Process optimization and microstructural development during superplastic-like forming of AA5083. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69:2415–2422

  8. 8.

    Lan HC, Fuh YK, Lee S, Chu CL (2013) Two-stage superplastic forming of a V-shape aluminum sheet into a trough with deep and irregular contour. J Mater Eng Perform 22(8):2241–2246

  9. 9.

    Luckey SG, Friedman PA, Weinmann KJ (2009) Design and experimental validation of a two-stage superplastic forming die. J Mater Proc Technol 209(4):2152–2160

  10. 10.

    Tang JS, Fuh YK, Lee S (2015) Superplastic forming process applied to aero-industrial strakelet: wrinkling, thickness and microstructure analysis. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 77:1513–1523

  11. 11.

    Hefti LD (2007) Commercial airplane applications of superplastically formed AA5083 aluminum sheet. J Mater Eng Perform 16(2):136–141

  12. 12.

    Wei Z, Zhang ZL, Dong XH (2006) Deep drawing of rectangle parts using variable blank holder force. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 29:885–889

  13. 13.

    Park D, Yarlagadda P (2008) Effects of punch load for elliptical deep drawing product of automotive parts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 35:814–820

  14. 14.

    Menezes P, Kumar K, Kishore KS (2009) Influence of friction during forming processes—a study using a numerical simulation technique. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 40:1067–1076

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Jung-Sung Tang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lee, S., Tang, J. & Chu, C. Size effect in gas forming a hot-bent AA5xxx V-shaped trough trimmed for an airplane strakelet skin panel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86, 2747–2752 (2016).

Download citation


  • Superplastic forming
  • Gas forming
  • Hot-bending-assisted gas forming
  • Plastic buckling