Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Unequal thickness billet design for large-scale titanium alloy rib-web components under isothermal closed-die forging

  • 264 Accesses

  • 9 Citations

Abstract

The under-filling defect is prone to occur in the forging of large-scale titanium alloy rib-web components (LTRC). A rigorous preform design with accurate volume distribution is required for a desirable LTRC. The unequal thickness billet (UTB) design divides the preform into multiple regions of varying thickness and can not only adjust the volume distribution effectively but also control forming defects with low cost and high efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to attain LTRC without any under-filling defects using the UTB methodology. Firstly, cross sections are extracted from a desirable LTRC so as to create the initial UTB according to the calculated neutral layer of material flow between ribs. Then a finite element (FE) model is established, using the Deform-3D software for the isothermal closed-die forging to study the material flow and die cavity filling. Finally, three schemes to modify the initial UTB are proposed for those areas where there is under-filling: (I) increase the number of regions in affected areas, (II) adjust the size parameters of the regions around affected areas, and (III) increase the thickness of the regions in affected areas. In conclusion, it is found that scheme I and scheme II are based on the constancy of volume principle and can be adopted if the distribution of the ribs on those affected areas is quite simple. However, scheme I increases the complexity of the UTB, so scheme II is preferred. Alternatively, if the distribution of ribs on those regions is more complicated, scheme III can be adopted. Although the volume of the UTB is increased slightly, all ribs can be completely filled, allowing the most accurate LTRC to be produced.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Shen G, Furrer D (2000) Manufacturing of aerospace forgings. J Mater Process Technol 98:189–195

  2. 2.

    Yang H, Zhan M, Liu YL, Xian FJ, Sun ZC, Lin Y, Zhang XG (2004) Some advanced plastic processing technologies and their numerical simulation. J Mater Process Technol 151(1):63–69

  3. 3.

    Yang H, Fan XG, Sun ZC (2011) Recent developments in plastic forming technology of titanium alloys. Science China Technol Sci 54(2):490–501

  4. 4.

    Kleinera M, Geigerb M, Klaus A (2013) Manufacturing of lightweight components by metal forming. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 52(2):521–542

  5. 5.

    Yang H, Wu C, Li HW, Fan XG, Zhang DW, Ji Z (2011) Review on development of key technologies in plastic forming of titanium alloy. Mater China 30(6):6–13

  6. 6.

    Zhang YQ, Jiang SY, Zhao YA, Shan DB (2014) Isothermal precision forging of aluminum alloy ring seats with different preforms using FEM and experimental investigation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 72:1693–1703

  7. 7.

    Altan T (1982) Modern forging: equipment, materials and process, Lu S, translated. Defence Industrial Press, Beijing (in Chinese)

  8. 8.

    Lu B, Ou HA, Cui ZS (2011) Shape optimisation of preform design for precision close-die forging. Struct Multidiscip Optim 44:785–796

  9. 9.

    Park JJ, Rebelo N, Kobayashi S (1983) A new approach to preform design in metal forming with the finite element method. Int J Mach Tool Des Res 23(1):71–79

  10. 10.

    Hwang SM, Kobayashi S (1986) Preform design in disk forging. Int J Mach Tool Des Res 26(3):231–243

  11. 11.

    Kang BS, Kim N, Kobayashi S (1990) Computer-aided preform design in forging of an airfoil section blade. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 30(1):43–52

  12. 12.

    Zhao GQ, Wang GC, Grandhi RV (2002) Die cavity design of near flashless forging process using FEM-based backward simulation. J Mater Process Technol 121(2-3):173–181

  13. 13.

    Gao T, Yang H, Liu YL (2008) Influence of dynamic boundary conditions on preform design for deformation uniformity in backward simulation. J Mater Process Technol 197:255–260

  14. 14.

    Badrinarayanan S, Zabaras N (1996) A sensitivity analysis for the optimal design of metal-forming processes. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 129(4):319–348

  15. 15.

    Zhao GQ, Wright ER, Grandhi RV (1997) Preform sensitivity analysis based preform die shape design for net-shape forging. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 37(9):1251–1271

  16. 16.

    Thiyagarajan N, Grandhi RV (2005) Multi-level design process for 3-D preform shape optimization in metal forming. J Mater Process Technol 170(1-2):421–429

  17. 17.

    Roy S, Ghoshi S, Shivpuri R (2005) New approach to optimal design of multi-stage metal forming processes with micro genetic algorithms. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 37(1):29–44

  18. 18.

    Lee SR, Lee YK, Park CH, Yang DY (2002) A new method of preform design in hot forging by using electric field theory. Int J Mech Sci 44(4):773–792

  19. 19.

    Tabatabaei SA, Panahi MS, Mashhadi MM, Tabatabee SM, Aghajanzadeh M (2013) Optimum design of preform geometry and forming pressure in tube hydroforming using the equi-potential lines method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(9-12):2787–2792

  20. 20.

    Guan YJ, Bai X, Liu MJ, Song LB, Zhao GQ (2015) Preform design in forging process of complex parts by using quasi-equipotential field and response surface methods. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. doi:10.1007/s00170-014-6775-6

  21. 21.

    Shao Y, Lu B, Ou HA, Ren FC, Chen J (2014) Evolutionary forging preform design optimization using strain-based criterion. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71(1-4):69–80

  22. 22.

    Choi JC, Kim BM, Kim SW (1995) Computer-aided design of blockers for rib-web type forging. J Mater Process Technol 54:314–321

  23. 23.

    Park JJ, Hwang HS (2007) Preform design for precision forging of an asymmetric rib-web type component. J Mater Process Technol 187–188:595–599

  24. 24.

    Zhang DW, Yang H (2013) Metal flow characteristics of local loading forming process for rib-web component with unequal-thickness billet. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:1949–1965

  25. 25.

    Zhang DW, Yang H (2013) Preform design for large-scale bulkhead of TA15 titanium alloy based on local loading features. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(9-12):2551–2562

  26. 26.

    Wu YJ, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2006) Simulation on influence of local loading conditions on material flow during rib-web components forming. China Mech Eng 17(supplement):12–15

  27. 27.

    Zhang DW (2012) Forming regulation and preform design of large-scale complex titanium alloy component in isothermal local loading process. Doctor Thesis, Northwestern Polytechnical University (in Chinese)

  28. 28.

    Zhang DW, Yang H (2015) Fast analysis on metal flow in isothermal local loading process for multi-rib component using slab method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. doi:10.1007/s00170-015-6956-y

  29. 29.

    Zhang DW, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2012) Deformation behavior of variable-thickness region of billet in rib-web component isothermal local loading process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63(1-4):1–12

  30. 30.

    Sun ZC, Yang H, Sun NG (2012) Effects of parameters on inhomogeneous deformation and damage in isothermal local loading forming of Ti-Alloy component. J Mater Eng Perform 21(3):313–323

  31. 31.

    Zhang DW, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2010) A new FE modeling method for isothermal local loading process of large-scale complex titanium alloy components based on DEFORM-3D. AIP Conference Proceedings 1252. American Institute of Physics, Melville, New York, USA, pp 439–446

  32. 32.

    Shen CW (2007) Research on material constitution models of TA15 and TC11 titanium alloys in hot deformation processes. Master Thesis, Northwestern Polytechnical University (in Chinese)

  33. 33.

    Sun ZC, Yang H, Sun NG (2009) Simulation on local loading partition during titanium bulkhead isothermal forming process. J Plasticity Eng 16(1):138–143 (in Chinese)

  34. 34.

    Sun ZC, Yang H (2009) Forming quality of titanium alloy large scale integral components isothermal local loading. Arab J Sci Eng 34(1C):35–45

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to He Yang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wei, K., Yang, H., Fan, X. et al. Unequal thickness billet design for large-scale titanium alloy rib-web components under isothermal closed-die forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81, 729–744 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7226-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Rib-web component
  • Unequal thickness billet
  • Under-filling defect
  • Finite element simulation