Study on governing parameters of thermal history during underwater friction stir welding

  • Hossein Papahn
  • Pouya BahemmatEmail author
  • Mohammad Haghpanahi
  • Christof Sommitsch


Underwater friction stir welding (FSW) could widely extend the submarine applications of solid-state welding methods. Since, in the case of underwater FSW, the temperature field exhibits profound effects on the acquired weld properties, studying the corresponding governing parameters is of high priority. With this end in view, in order to explicate the heat generated by the FSW tool, the applied forces on the FSW tool, as the unknown parameters in the heat generation equation, are obtained. Subsequently, the heat transfer of the surrounding fluid, which dictates the heat transfer through the workpiece is investigated. The results reveal that upon comparison to FSW in air medium, both translational and axial forces considerably increase leading to greater heat generated by the underwater FSW tool. However, the peak temperature in each point during underwater welding declines dramatically (40 %) compared to the in-air welding, which can be attributed to the extreme boiling heat transfer of water on both the workpiece and FSW tool. This behavior may be the main reason for the acquired mechanical properties of the underwater-welded AA7075-T6 plates as a precipitating hardening alloy. The mentioned heat transfer is non-uniform over the workpiece and comprises different types including nucleation and transition boiling as well as free convection. Furthermore, the study of the mechanical characteristics revealed that underwater welding leads to joints with more strength and lower ductility compared to those obtained by in-air welding.


Underwater FSW Applied forces Temperature Heat generation Boiling heat transfer 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Papahn
    • 1
  • Pouya Bahemmat
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohammad Haghpanahi
    • 1
  • Christof Sommitsch
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Joining and Welding DepartmentASA Engineering Group (Engineering Company of Asr Sanat Ala)TehranIran
  3. 3.Institute for Material Science and Welding, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Materials Modelling and SimulationGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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