Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Evolutionary forging preform design optimization using strain-based criterion

Abstract

Preform design plays an important role in forging design especially for parts with complex shapes. In this paper, an attempt was made to develop a topological optimization approach for the preform design in bulk metal forming processes based on the bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization strategy. In this approach, a new strain-based element addition and removal criterion has been proposed for evaluating and optimizing the material flow in the forging process. To obtain a smooth preform boundary, a closed B-spline curve based on the least square algorithm is employed to approximate the uneven surface of the updated preform profile. A C# program has been developed to integrate the FE simulation, shape optimization, and surface approximation processes. Two 2D forging preform design problems are evaluated by using the developed method. The results suggest that the optimized preform with the strain uniformity criterion has shown better performance in improving the material flow and deformation uniformity during the forging process. The results also demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the developed preform optimization method.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Sheu J, Yu C (2009) Preform and forging process designs based on geometrical features using 2D and 3D FEM simulations. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 44:244–254

  2. 2.

    Lee SR, Lee YK, Park CH, Yang DY (2002) A new method of preform design in hot forging by using electric field theory. Int J Mech Sci 44:773–792

  3. 3.

    Cai J, Li FG, Liu TY (2011) A new approach of preform design based on 3D electrostatic field simulation and geometric transformation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 56:579–588

  4. 4.

    Yang YH, Liu D, He ZY, Luo ZJ (2009) Multi-objective preform optimization using RSM. Rare Metal Mater Eng 38:1019–1024

  5. 5.

    Zhao G, Ma X, Zhao X, Grandhi RV (2004) Studies on optimization of metal forming processes using sensitivity analysis methods. J Mater Process Technol 147:217–228

  6. 6.

    Zhao X, Zhao G, Wang G, Wang T (2002) Preform die shape design for uniformity of deformation in forging based on preform sensitivity analysis. J Mater Process Technol 128:25–32

  7. 7.

    Roy S, Ghosh S, Shivpuri R (1997) A new approach to optimal design of multi-stage metal forming processes with micro genetic algorithms. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 37:29–44

  8. 8.

    Park JJ, Rebelo N, Kobayashi S (1983) A new approach to preform design in metal forming with the finite element method. Int J Mach Tool Des Res 23:71–79

  9. 9.

    Kim N, Kobayashi S (1990) Preform design in H-shaped cross sectional axisymmetric forging by the finite element method. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 30:243–268

  10. 10.

    Kang BS, Kim N, Kobayashi S (1990) Computer-aided preform design in forging of an airfoil section blade. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 30:43–52

  11. 11.

    Zhao G, Zhao Z, Wang T, Grandhi RV (1998) Preform design of a generic turbine disk forging process. J Mater Process Technol 84:193–201

  12. 12.

    Gao T, Yang H, Liu Y (2006) Backward tracing simulation of precision forging process for blade based on 3D FEM. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 16:639–644

  13. 13.

    Xu Z, Lin Z, Wang H (2006) Lightweight design of auto-body structure by topology optimisation based on level set method. IET Conf Publ 2006:1818–1823

  14. 14.

    Deng Y, Chen H, Ma M, Zhang Y (2005) Studies of aircraft frame design based on topology optimization. Struct Environ Eng 32:39–45

  15. 15.

    Anna N, Frida B (2007) Topology optimization of a stamping die. AIP Conf Proc 908:449–454

  16. 16.

    Rozvany G, Zhou M, Birker T (1992) Generalized shape optimization without homogenization. Struct Multidiscip Optim 4:250–252

  17. 17.

    Suzuki K, Kikuchi N (1991) A homogenization method for shape and topology optimization method. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 93:291–318

  18. 18.

    Xie YM, Steven GP (1993) A simple evolutionary procedure for structural optimization. Comput Struct 49:885–896

  19. 19.

    Rozvany G (2009) A critical review of established methods of structural topology optimization. Struct Multidiscip Optim 37:217–237

  20. 20.

    Querin O, Steven G, Xie Y (1998) Evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) using a bidirectional algorithm. Eng Comput 15:1031–1048

  21. 21.

    Huang X, Xie ZM (2008) Topology optimization of nonlinear structures under displacement loading. Eng Struct 30:2057–2068

  22. 22.

    Zhou M, Rozvany G (2001) On the validity of ESO type methods in topology optimization. Struct Multidiscip Optim 21:80–83

  23. 23.

    Huang X, Zuo ZH, Xie YM (2010) Evolutionary topological optimization of vibrating continuum structures for natural frequencies. Comput Struct 88:357–364

  24. 24.

    Naceur H, Guo YQ, Batoz JL (2004) Blank optimization in sheet metal forming using an evolutionary algorithm. J Mater Process Technol 151:183–191

  25. 25.

    Lu B, Ou H, Cui ZS (2011) Shape optimisation of preform design for precision close-die forging. Struct Multidiscip Optim 44:785–796

  26. 26.

    Piegl L, Tiller W (1997) The NURBS book, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin

  27. 27.

    Zhao G, Wright E, Grandhi RV (1995) Forging preform design with shape complexity control in simulating backward deformation. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 35:1225–1239

  28. 28.

    Tomov B, Radev R (1997) Shape complexity factor for closed die forging. Int J Mater Form 3:319–322

  29. 29.

    Lu B, Ou H, Armstrong CG, Rennie A (2009) 3D die shape optimisation for net-shape forging of aerofoil blades. Mater Des 30:2490–2500

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Bin Lu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shao, Y., Lu, B., Ou, H. et al. Evolutionary forging preform design optimization using strain-based criterion. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71, 69–80 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5456-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Preform design
  • Optimization
  • Topology
  • Hot forging
  • Finite element