Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

A computer-aided system for sustainability assessment for the die-casting process planning

  • 359 Accesses

  • 3 Citations


The sustainability assessment of a product's manufacturing using a life cycle assessment tool utilizes the average sustainability performance of the manufacturing process. Because of using an average of sustainability performance, the crucial information related to manufacturing is lost. Therefore, such an assessment cannot be used to assess and compare the sustainability of a part made using different process plans. In this paper, we propose a new systematic approach for sustainability assessment of the die-casting process planning. A computer-aided system named Sustainability Assessor for Die-casting is presented. Here, we discuss the details of the architecture and working of the proposed system. We assess sustainability using three sustainability indicators, namely, energy use, solid waste, and carbon emissions. The proposed system is verified by comparing results with the actual data measured from the shop floor. The developed system is beneficial for sustainability assessment comparing different plans alongside material properties, ultimately helping the die-casting industry to reduce the carbon emissions and material waste, besides improving energy efficiency.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    US Department of Commerce (2010) How does commerce define sustainability. Accessed 13 Feb 2012

  2. 2.

    Ramani K, Ramanujan D, Bernstein WZ, Zhao F, Sutherland J, Handwerker C, Choi J, Kim H, Thurston D (2010) Integrated sustainable life cycle design: a review. J Mech Des 132:91044

  3. 3.

    Kellens K, Dewulf W, Overcash M, Hauschild MZ, Duflou J (2012) Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life-cycle inventory (UPLCI)—CO2PE! Initiative. Part 1: Methodology description. Int J Life Cycle Assess 17(1):69–78

  4. 4.

    Kellens K, Dewulf W, Overcash M, Hauschild MZ, Duflou J (2012) Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life-cycle inventory (UPLCI)—CO2PE! Initiative. Part 2: case studies. Int J Life Cycle Assess 17(2):242–251

  5. 5.

    Yong P, Byrene IG, Cotterell M (1997) Manufacturing and the environment. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 13(7):488–493

  6. 6.

    Vinodh S, Jayakrishna K (2013) Assessment of product sustainability and the associated risk/benefits for an automotive organization. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 66:733–740

  7. 7.

    Jeswiet J, Kara S (2008) Air emissions and CESTM in manufacturing. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 57(1):17–20

  8. 8.

    Veleva V, Ellenbecker M (2001) Indicators of sustainable production: framework and methodology. J Clean Prod 9(6):519–549

  9. 9.

    American Foundry Society (2008) Metal casters alliance for government affairs. Accessed 13 Feb 2012

  10. 10.

    Zamagni A, Buttol P, Porta PL, Buonamici R, Masoni P, Guinée J, Heijungs R, Ekvall T, Bersani R, Bienkowska A, Pretato U (2006) Critical review of the current research needs and limitations related to ISO-LCA practice. ENEA, Italy

  11. 11.

    GaBi Software (2012). Accessed 13 Feb 2012

  12. 12.

    SimaPro Software, About SimaPro (2012) Accessed 12 Feb 2012

  13. 13.

    Gutowski T, Dahmus J, Thiriez A (2006) Electrical energy requirements for manufacturing processes. Proceedings of 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, May 31–June 2, 2010. Leuven, Belgium

  14. 14.

    Neto B, Kroeze C, Hordijk L, Costa C (2009) Inventory of pollution reduction options for an aluminium pressure die casting plant. Resour Conserv Recycl 53:309–320

  15. 15.

    Krajnc D, Glavič P (2003) Indicators of sustainable production. Clean Techn Environ Policy 5(3–4):279–288

  16. 16.

    Taha Z, Kurniati H, Aoyama H, Ghazilla RG, Gonzales, Sakundarini N (2010) Linkage or power consumption to design feature on turning process. Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS International. Conference on Robotics. Control and Manufacturing Technology, April 11–13, 2010. Hangzhou. China

  17. 17.

    Choi ACK, Kaebernick H, Lai WH (1997) Manufacturing processes modelling for environmental impact assessment. J Mater Process Technol 70:231–238

  18. 18.

    Feng SC, Joung CB (2009) An overview of a proposed measurement infrastructure for sustainable manufacturing. Accessed 13 Feb 2012

  19. 19.

    Ciceri N, Gutowski T, Garetti M (2010) A tool to estimate materials and manufacturing energy for a product. IEEE/International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology, May 16–19, 2010. Washington DC, USA

  20. 20.

    Ameta G, Mani M, Rachuri S, Feng SC, Sriram RD, Lyons KW (2009) Carbon weight assessment for machining operation and allocation for redesign. Int J Sustain Eng 2(4):241–251

  21. 21.

    Thirez A, Gutowski T (2006) An environmental impact assessment of injection molding. IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environmental, May 8–11, 2006.San Francisco, CA, USA

  22. 22.

    Jiang Z, Zhang H, Sutherland JW (2012) Development of an environmental performance assessment method for manufacturing process plans. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 58(5–8):783–790

  23. 23.

    Narita H, Kawamura H, Norihisa T, Chen LY, Fujimoto H, Hasebe T (2006) Prediction system of environmental burden for machining operation. JSME Int J Ser C 49(4):1188–1195

  24. 24.

    Dalquist S, Gutowski T (2004) Life cycle assessment of conventional manufacturing techniques: sand casting. Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Exposition, November 13–19, 2004. Anaheim, California, USA

  25. 25.

    Dalquist S, Gutowski T (2004) Life cycle assessment of conventional manufacturing techniques: die casting. Working paper LMP-MIT-TGG-03-12-19-2004. Accessed 16 Feb 2012

  26. 26.

    Robert MJ (2003) Modified life cycle inventory of aluminium die casting. Thesis, Deakin University

  27. 27.

    Tharumarajah A (2008) Benchmarking aluminium die casting operations. Resour Conserv Recycl 52:1185–1189

  28. 28.

    Singh PP, Madan J, Singh A, Mani M (2012) A computer aided system for sustainability assessment for die-casting process (MSEC2012-7303). Proceedings of the ASME International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference (MSEC 2012), June 4–8, 2012. Notre Dame, IN, USA

  29. 29.

    Joshi DB, Ravi B, Rao MVNJ, Nagar NK (2005) Evaluation and comparison of environmental impacts of sand casting process using life cycle assessment. Working paper. Accessed 17 Feb 2012

  30. 30.

    Neto B, Kroeze C, Hordijk L, Costa C (2008) Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die-casting plant and options for control. Environ Model Softw 23:147–168

  31. 31.

    Keljik J (2009) Electricity 3: power generation and delivery, 9th edn. Delmar Cenage Learning, New York

  32. 32.

    Bill A (2005) Die casting engineering: a hydraulic, thermal and mechanical process, 1st edn. CRC, South Haven

  33. 33.

    Environmental Management System (2003) Environmental management system (EMS) template for the die casting industry. Accessed 11 Feb 2012

  34. 34.

    PRTR Estimation Manuals (2004) Die casting industry. Accessed 27 June 2012

  35. 35.

    North American Die Casting Association (2012) Die casting environmentally process. Accessed 30 Jan 2013

  36. 36.

    U.S. Department of Energy (2012) Process heating assessment and survey tool. Accessed 18 June 2013

  37. 37.

    Carbon Trust (2011) Organizational carbon footprints. Accessed 14 Feb 2012

  38. 38.

    Wiedmann T, Minx J (2007) A definition of carbon footprint. ISAUK Research Report

  39. 39.

    Indian Power Sector User Guide Version 4.0 (2008) Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi

  40. 40.

    Defra (2007) Guidelines to defra GHG conversion factors for company reporting. Accessed 14 Feb 2012

  41. 41.

    US Department of Energy (1999) Data factors for metrics estimating. Department of Energy & CMC Partners. Accessed 14 Feb 2012

  42. 42.

    Boothroyd G, Dewhurst P, Knight W (2002) Product design for manufacturing and assembly, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York

  43. 43.

    Zarandi MHF, Mansour S, Hosseinijou SA, Avazbeigi M (2011) A material selection methodology and expert system for sustainable product design. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 57(9–12):885–903

  44. 44.

    Vinodh S, Kamala V, Sharma MS (2013) Compromise ranking approach for sustainable concept selection in an Indian modular switches manufacturing organization. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. doi:10.1007/s00170-012-4134-z

  45. 45.

    Madan J, Rao PVM, Kundra TK (2006) System for early cost estimation of die-cast parts. Int J Prod Res 45(20):4823–4847

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Prince Pal Singh.



A. Snapshot of the GUI of subprocesses of the Sustainability Assessor for Die-casting

Fig. 8

Subprocess form for induction melting

Fig. 9

Subprocess form for holding furnace

Fig. 10

Subprocess form for trimming

Fig. 11

Subprocess form for heat treatment

Fig. 12

Subprocess form for microlevel activities

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Singh, P.P., Madan, J. A computer-aided system for sustainability assessment for the die-casting process planning. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87, 1283–1298 (2016).

Download citation


  • Sustainability assessment
  • Die-casting
  • Process planning
  • Energy use
  • Solid waste
  • Air emission