Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Dimensional analyses and surface quality of pulsed UV laser micro-machining of STAVAX stainless steel mold inserts

  • 278 Accesses

  • 7 Citations


Laser micro-machining is a new, precise, and very flexible process in micro-mold manufacturing, especially for difficult to machine material, i.e., hardened steel. The aim of the work reported in this paper was to utilize response surface methodology to optimize the dimensional accuracy and surface finish for STAVAX stainless steel mold inserts in the pulsed UV laser micro-machining. The influence of laser machining parameters on the ablated depth and surface roughness of the machined mold inserts have been experimentally investigated. The parameters of insert quality are analyzed under varying laser power, pulse frequency, hatched spacing, scan rate, and number of passes. The settings of the laser micro-machining parameters are determined by using design of experiments method. The analysis of variance, and regression analyses are employed to find the optimal levels and to analyze the effect of the parameters on the depth accuracy values and surface finish. Confirmation experiments with the optimal levels of micro-machining parameters are carried out in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the multi-optimization method. The validity of regression approach to process optimization is well established.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Shiou FJ, Ciou HS (2008) Ultra-precision surface finish of the hardened stainless mold steel using vibration-assisted ball polishing process. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(7–8):721–732

  2. 2.

    Modest MF, Ramanathan S, Raiber A, Angstenberger B (1994) Laser machining of ablation material—Overlapped grooves and entrance/exit effects, Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Mater. Process., Proceed. ICALEO’94. 2500: 303–312

  3. 3.

    Dumitru G, Lüscher B, Krack M, Bruneau S, Hermann J, Gerbig Y (2005) Laser processing of hard metals: physical basics and applications. Int J Refract Met H 23(4–6):278–286

  4. 4.

    Jackson MJ, O’Neill W (2003) Laser micro-drilling of tool steel using Nd:YAG lasers. J Mater Process Technol 142(2):517–525

  5. 5.

    Chen K, Yao YL (2000) Process optimization in pulsed laser micromachining with applications in medical device manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 16(4):243–249

  6. 6.

    Biswas R, Kuar AS, Sarkar S, Mitra S (2010) A parametric study of pulsed Nd:YAG laser micro-drilling of gamma-titanium aluminide. Opt Laser Technol 42(1):23–31

  7. 7.

    Ghoreishi M (2005) Statistical analysis of repeatability in laser percussion drilling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 29:70–78

  8. 8.

    Kuar AS, Doloi B, Bhattacharyya B (2006) Modelling and analysis pulsed ND:YAG laser machining characteristics during micro-drilling of zirconia (ZrO2). Int J Mach Tools Manuf 46:1301–1010

  9. 9.

    Yilbas BS (1988) Study into drilling speed during laser drilling of metals. Opt Laser Technol 20(1):29–32

  10. 10.

    Ghany KA, Newishy M (2005) Cutting of 1.2 mm thick austenitic stainless steel sheet using pulsed and CW Nd:YAG laser. J Mater Process Technol 168:438–447

  11. 11.

    Riveiro A, Quintero F, Lusquiños F, Comesaña R, Pou J (2010) Parametric investigation of CO2 laser cutting of 2024-T3 alloy. J Mater Process Technol 210(9):1138–1152

  12. 12.

    Wee LM, Crouse PL, Li L (2008) A statistical analysis of striation formation during laser cutting of ceramics. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 36(7–8):699–706

  13. 13.

    Campanelli SL, Ludovico AD, Bonserio C, Cavalluzzi P, Cinquepalmi M (2007) Experimental analysis of the laser milling process parameters. J Mater Process Technol 191(1–3):220–223

  14. 14.

    Orazi L, Cuccolini G, Fortunato A, Tani G (2010) An automated procedure for material removal rate prediction in laser surface micromanufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 46(1):163–171

  15. 15.

    Dhupal D, Doloi B, Bhattacharyya B (2008) Pulsed Nd:YAG laser turning of micro-groove on aluminum oxide ceramic (Al2O3). Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(2):236–248

  16. 16.

    Wee LM, Ng EYK, Prathama AH, Zheng H (2011) Micro-machining of silicon wafer in air and under water. Opt Laser Technol 43(1):62–71

  17. 17.

    Montgomery DD (2001) Design and analysis of experiments, 5th edn. Wiley, New York

  18. 18.

    Klocke F, Kordt M (2004) Laser microablation: Tribological microstructures for hydraulic components. In Proceeding of LANE. 2004: 663–642

  19. 19.

    Low DKY, Li L, Byrd PJ (2003) Spatter prevention during the laser drilling of selected aerospace materials. J Mater Process Technol 139(1–3):71–76

  20. 20.

    Wee LM, Khoong LE, Tan CW, Lim GC (2010) Solvent-assisted laser drilling of silicon carbide. Int J Appl Ceram Technol (in press)

  21. 21.

    Simchi A, Pohl H (2003) Effects of laser sintering processing parameters on the microstructure and densification of iron powder. Mater Sci Eng A 359(1-2):119–128

  22. 22.

    Tian X, Günster J, Melcher J, Li D, Heinrich JG (2009) Process parameters analysis of direct laser sintering and post treatment of porcelain components using Taguchi’s method. J Eur Ceram Soc 29(10):1903–1915

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Lee Mein Wee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wee, L.M., Lim, G.C. & Zheng, H.Y. Dimensional analyses and surface quality of pulsed UV laser micro-machining of STAVAX stainless steel mold inserts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 57, 1011–1027 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3348-9

Download citation


  • Laser micro-machining
  • Ablation depth
  • Surface roughness
  • RSM