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Prediction of surface roughness in CNC end milling by machine vision system using artificial neural network based on 2D Fourier transform


This paper presents a system for automated, non-contact, and flexible prediction of surface roughness of end-milled parts through a machine vision system which is integrated with an artificial neural network (ANN). The images of milled surface grabbed by the machine vision system could be extracted using the algorithm developed in this work, in the spatial frequency domain using a two-dimensional Fourier transform to get the features of image texture (major peak frequency F 1, principal component magnitude squared value F 2, and the average gray level G a). Since F1 is the distance between the major peak and the origin, it is a robust measure to overcome the effect of lighting of the environment. The periodically occurring features such as feed marks and tool marks present in the gray-level image can be easily observed from the principal component magnitude squared value F 2. The experimental machining variables speed S, feedrate F, depth of cut D, and the response extracted image variables F 1, F 2, and G a could be used as input data, and the response surface roughness R a measured by Surfcorder SE-1100 (traditional stylus method) could be used as output data of an ANN ability to construct the relationships between input and output variables. The ANN was trained using the back-propagation algorithm developed in this work due to its superior strength in pattern recognition and reasonable speed. Using the trained ANN, the experimental result had shown that the surface roughness of milled parts predicted by machine vision system over a wide range of machining conditions could be got with a reasonable accuracy compared with those measured by traditional stylus method. Compared with the stylus method, the constructed machine vision system is a useful method for prediction of the surface roughness faster, with a lower price, and lower environment noise in manufacturing process. Experimental results have shown that the proposed machine vision system can be implemented for automated prediction of surface roughness with accuracy of 97.53%. The results are encouraging that machine vision system can be extended to many real-time industrial prediction applications.


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Correspondence to S. Palani.

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Palani, S., Natarajan, U. Prediction of surface roughness in CNC end milling by machine vision system using artificial neural network based on 2D Fourier transform. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 54, 1033–1042 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-010-3018-3

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  • CNC end milling
  • Surface roughness
  • Machine vision
  • Fourier transform
  • ANN