Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Numerical evaluation of transient thermal loads on a WEDM wire electrode under spatially random multiple discharge conditions with and without clustering of sparks

  • 285 Accesses

  • 8 Citations


Thermal load on wire electrode under randomly located multiple discharge condition is the most important consideration for predicting wire breakage in wire electrical discharge machining process. Sometimes the discharges form clusters as observed experimentally by different researchers and may occur because of inadequate evacuation of the debris generated during each discharge. Formation of clusters is more likely in thick work pieces. Clusters are spread randomly along the wire while sparks in each cluster too are random. Such clustering of sparks enhances the intensity of thermal load on the wire. In the present investigation, a one-dimensional explicit finite-difference thermal model is proposed for estimating the transient temperature distribution along the length of the wire under the conditions of randomly located spatial sparks with and without the formation of clusters. While each of the electric discharges is simulated as a volumetric heat source present within the wire over the discharge channel width, which in turn is calculated from the available literature, the successive sparks and cluster of sparks are located on the wire by means of a random function. The predicted values of maximum wire temperatures indicate the degree of wire rupture risk, which has been found to be different for short and long elapsed times. Accordingly, random pulse and clusters models are suggested for predicting thermal loads while machining thin or thick work pieces, respectively. The effects of work-piece height, power input, pulse frequency, duty factor, wire velocity, wire diameter, and the convective heat transfer coefficient have been reported. The one-dimensional thermal models may be used for setting rules of selection for an expert system for the safe operating conditions of wire electro-discharge machining.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Scott D, Boyina S, Rajurkar KP (1991) Analysis and optimization of parameter combinations in wire electrical discharge machining. Int J Prod Res 29(11):2189–2207

  2. 2.

    Jennes M, Snoeys R, Dekeyser W (1984) Comparison of various approaches to model the thermal load on the EDM-wire electrode. Ann CIRP 33(1):93–98

  3. 3.

    Kinoshita N, Fukai M, Gamo G (1982) Control of wire-EDM preventing electrode from breaking. Ann CIRP 31(1):111–114

  4. 4.

    Rajurkar KP, Wang WM (1991) On-line monitor and control for wire breakage in WEDM. Ann CIRP 40(1):219–222

  5. 5.

    Tanimura T, Heuvelman CJ, Veenstra PC (1977) The properties of servo gap sensor with wire spark-erosion machining. Ann CIRP 26(1):59–63

  6. 6.

    Rajurkar KP, Wang WM (1993) Thermal modeling and on-line monitoring of wire-EDM. J Mater Process Technol 38(1–2):417–430

  7. 7.

    Dekeyser W, Snoeys R, Jennes M (1985) A thermal model to investigate the wire rupture phenomenon for improving performance in EDM wire cutting. J Manuf Syst 4(2):179–190

  8. 8.

    Dekeyser W, Snoeys R, Jennes M (1988) Expert system for wire cutting EDM based on pulse classification and thermal modeling. Robot Comput-Integr Manuf 4(1–2):219–224

  9. 9.

    TAJr L, Murphy KD (2002) Modal convection and its effect on the stability on EDM wires. Int J Mech Sci 44(1):207–216

  10. 10.

    Saha S, Pachon M, Ghosal A, Schulz MJ (2004) Finite element modeling and optimization to prevent wire breakage in electro-discharge machining. Mech Res Commun 31(4):451–463

  11. 11.

    Banerjee S, Prasad BVSSS, Mishra PK (1993) A simple model to estimate the thermal loads on an EDM wire electrode. J Mater Process Technol 39(3–4):305–317

  12. 12.

    Jilani TS, Pandey PC (1983) Analysis of surface erosion in electrical discharge machining. Wear 84(3):275–284

  13. 13.

    Guerrero-Alvarez JL, Greene JE, von Turkovich BF (1972) Study of electro-erosion phenomenon of Fe and Zn. ASME Pap (Issue 72—WA/Prod—22)

  14. 14.

    Murti VSR, Philip PK (1988) Textural characteristics of EDM surfaces. In: Lahiri BN (Ed.), Proceedings of 13th All India Machine Tool Design and Research Conference, Calcutta, India, pp. F-01–F-06.

  15. 15.

    Kunieda M, Takeshita S, Okumiya K (1998) Study on wire electrode temperature in WEDM. VDI Berichte 1405:119–128

  16. 16.

    Kunieda M, Lauwers B, Rajurkar KP, Schumacher BM (2005) Advancing EDM through fundamental insight into the process. Ann CIRP 54(2):599–622

  17. 17.

    Croft DR, Lilley DG (1977) Heat transfer calculations using finite difference equations, 1st edn. Applied Science, London, pp 104–108

  18. 18.

    Eckert ERG, Drake RM (1972) Analysis of heat and mass transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 138–142

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Simul Banerjee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Banerjee, S., Prasad, B.V.S.S.S. Numerical evaluation of transient thermal loads on a WEDM wire electrode under spatially random multiple discharge conditions with and without clustering of sparks. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 48, 571–580 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-009-2300-8

Download citation


  • Wire electrical discharge machining process
  • Thermal load
  • Clusters model