Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

In-process heat treatments to improve FS-welded butt joints

  • 262 Accesses

  • 48 Citations


Friction-stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new but already well known solid-state welding process whose main advantage with respect to fusion welding processes is the possibility to successfully weld light alloys, traditionally considered difficult to weld or unweldable. Despite the good mechanical performances that can be obtained, there exists the possibility to further improve the joints’ effectiveness through post-welding heat treatments that are however time and cost-expensive and, therefore, not best suited for industrial applications. In the present paper, the authors report the results of an experimental campaign, developed on FSW of AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy, aimed to investigate the possibility to enhance the joint performances through in process heat treatments. Welded joints were developed under three different conditions, namely, free air, forced air, and with water flowing on the surface of the joint itself. The influence of the external refrigerants was investigated at the varying of the specific thermal contribution conferred to the joint. Both mechanical and metallurgical investigations were developed on the welded joints highlighting both improvements of mechanical performances of the joints and reductions in the softening of the material when external refrigerants are used.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Kleiner M, Geiger M, Klaus A (2003) Manufacturing of lightweight components by metal forming. CIRP 52(2):521–542

  2. 2.

    Guerra M, Schmidt C, McClure LC, Murr LE, Nunes AC (2003) Flow patterns during friction stir welding. Mater Charact 49:95–101. doi:10.1016/S1044-5803(02)00362-5

  3. 3.

    Rhodes CG, Mahoney MW, Bingel WH, Spurling RA, Bampton CC (1997) Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure of 7075 aluminum. Scr Mater 36(1):69–75. doi:10.1016/S1359-6462(96)00344-2

  4. 4.

    Liu HJ, Fujii H, Maeda M, Nogi K (2003) Tensile properties and fracture locations of friction-stir-welded joints of 2017-T351 aluminum alloy. J Mater Proc Tech 142:692–696. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(03)00806-9

  5. 5.

    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng Rep 50:1–78. doi:10.1016/j.mser.2005.07.001

  6. 6.

    Barcellona A, Buffa G, Fratini L (2004) Process parameters analysis in friction stir welding of AA6082-T6 sheets, Keynote paper of the VII ESAFORM Conference, 28th–30th May 2004, Trondhaim, Norway, pp 371–374.

  7. 7.

    Barcellona A, Buffa G, Fratini L, Palmeri D (2006) On microstructural phenomena occurring in friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. J Mater Process Technol 177(1–3):340–343. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.03.192

  8. 8.

    Chen YC, Liu HJ, Feng JC (2006) Effect of post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of 2219-O friction stir welded joints. J Mater Sci 41(1):297–299. doi:10.1007/s10853-005-0640-9

  9. 9.

    Liu HJ, Chen YC, Feng JC (2006) Effect of heat treatment on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints of 2219-16 aluminium alloy. Mater Sci Technol 22(2):237–241. doi:10.1179/026708306X81513

  10. 10.

    Lumsden J, Pollock G, Mahoney M (2003) Effect of post weld heat treatments on the corrosion properties of FSW AA7050, TMS Annual Meeting, March 2nd–6th, San Diego, USA, pp 99–106

  11. 11.

    Hofmann DC, Vecchio KS (2005) Submerged friction stir processing (SFSP): An improved method for creating ultra-fine-grained bulk materials. Mater Sci Eng A 402:234–241. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2005.04.032

  12. 12.

    Sarukada D, Katoh K, Tokisue H (2002) Underwater friction welding of 6061 aluminum alloy. J Jpn Inst Light Met 52(1):2–6. doi:10.2464/jilm.52.2

  13. 13.

    Fratini L, Buffa G, Palmeri D, Hua J, Shivpuri R (2006) Material flow in FSW of AA7075-T6 butt joints: continuous dynamic recrystallization phenomena. ASME J Eng Mater Technol 128:428–435. doi:10.1115/1.2204946

  14. 14.

    Jata KV, Semiatin SL (2000) Continuous dynamic recrystallization during friction stir welding of high strength aluminum alloys. Scr Mater 43:743–749. doi:10.1016/S1359-6462(00)00480-2

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to L. Fratini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fratini, L., Buffa, G. & Shivpuri, R. In-process heat treatments to improve FS-welded butt joints. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 43, 664 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-008-1750-8

Download citation


  • FSW
  • Mechanical resistance
  • In process heat treatments