A study on the bulging processes of tubes in a trapezoid-sectional die has been carried out through finite-element (FE) analysis. A FE model of the single-step hydroforming process and several FE models of crushing combined with subsequent hydroforming processes in a trapezoid-sectional die with different die closing seams are proposed. The simulations are performed using the FE code LS-DYNA. For the single-step hydroforming process, the effects of loading paths on the formability of the trapezoid-sectional part are investigated. In the case of the crushing combined with subsequent hydroforming processes, the effects of die closing seams, tube diameters, and preforming loading paths on the forming process and the final parts are analyzed. A comparison between the parts formed through single-step hydroforming process and through crushing combined with subsequent hydroforming processes is performed. Finally, an experiment of tube hydroforming in a trapezoid-sectional die is carried out on the hydroforming machine developed by Shanghai Jiaotong University. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results.
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Li, S., Xu, X., Zhang, W. et al. Study on the crushing and hydroforming processes of tubes in a trapezoid-sectional die. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 43, 67 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-008-1702-3
- Trapezoid-sectional die