Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Influence of CrC addition in Ni-Cr-Si-B flame sprayed coatings on microstructure, microhardness and wear behaviour


In the present paper the influence of the addition of chromium carbide (CrC) particles on the microstructure, microhardness and abrasive wear behaviour of flame sprayed Ni-Cr-Si-B coatings deposited on low carbon steel substrate has been reported. Wear behaviour of the coatings was evaluated with a pin-on-block wear system against SiC abrasive medium (120 & 600 grades) over a range of normal load (5–20 N). It was observed that the wear behaviour is governed by the material related parameters (microstructure, microhardness of coating) and test parameters (abrasive grit size and normal load). The addition of CrC reduces the wear rate three to eightfold. Wear resistance was greater against coarse abrasives at high loads than against fine abrasives. Heat treatment of both unmodified (1004) and modified powder (1004-10%CrC, 1004-20%CrC) coatings deteriorated the abrasive wear resistance. SEM study of wear surfaces showed that wear of the coatings largely takes place by groove formation, plowing and scoring. Electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) of the coating was carried out for composition and phase analysis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Ghosh PK, Dwivedi DK, Mishra PS (2001) Studies on oxidation and wear resistance of hard surface produced by gas thermal spraying of modified nickel base eutectic alloy powder. Indian Weld J 34:35–41

  2. 2.

    Miguel JM, Guilemany JM, Vizcaino S (2003) Tribological study of NiCrBSi coating obtained by different processes. Tribol Int 36:181–187

  3. 3.

    Kim HJ, Kim YJ (1999) Wear and corrosion resistance of PTA weld surfaced Ni and Co based alloy layers. Surf Eng 15:495

  4. 4.

    Wong TT, Liang GY, He BL, Woo CH (2000) Wear resistance of laser-clad Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy on aluminium. Materials Processing Technology 100:142–146

  5. 5.

    Rodriguez J, Martín A, Fernández R, Fernández JE (2003) An experimental study of the wear performance of NiCrBSi thermal spray coatings. Wear 255:950–955

  6. 6.

    Sundararajan T, Kuroda S, Abe F, Sodeoka S (2005) High temperature corrosion of nanoceria coated 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel in air and steam. Surf Coat Technol (in press)

  7. 7.

    Skulev H, Malinov S, Sha W, Basheer PAM (2005) Microstructural and mechanical properties of nickel-base plasma sprayed coatings on steel and cast iron substrates. Surf Coat Technol 197:177–184

  8. 8.

    Skulev H, Malinov S, Basheer PAM, Sha W (2004) Modifications of phases, microstructure and hardness of Ni-based alloy plasma coatings due to thermal treatment. Surf Coat Technol 185:18

  9. 9.

    Torrance AA (2002) The effect of grit size and asperity blunting on abrasive wear. Wear 253:813–819

  10. 10.

    Moore MA (1974) A review of two-body abrasive. Wear 27:1–17

  11. 11.

    Cachon L, Sudreau F, Denape J, Lelait L (1996) Tribological qualification of cobalt-free coatings for pressurized water reactor primary-circuit gate valve applications. Surf Coat Technol 85(3):163–169, 15

  12. 12.

    Mateos J, Cuetos JM, Vijande R, Fernandez E (2001) Tribological properties of plasma sprayed and laser remelted 75/25 Cr3C2/NiCr coatings. Tribol Int 34(5):345–351

  13. 13.

    Kayuk V, Panasyuk A, Grigor’ev O (2006) Reactions of Cr3C2-TiN system materials with nickel-chromium alloys. Powder Metall Met Ceram 45(7–8):365–370

  14. 14.

    Sundararajan T, Kuroda S, Abe F (2004) Effect of thermal spray on the microstructure and adhesive strength of high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed Ni-Cr coatings on 9Cr-1Mo Steel. Metall Mater Trans A 35(10):3187–3199

  15. 15.

    Dent AH, Horlock AJ, McCartney DG, Harris SJ (2001) Microstructural characterisation of a Ni-Cr-B-C based alloy coating produced by high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying. Surf Coat Technol 139(2):244–250

  16. 16.

    Bahrololoom ME, Hoveidaei A (1999) Influence of post-heat treatment and complexing agents on hardness of Ni-Cr alloy coatings. Surf Eng 15(6):502–504

  17. 17.

    Dawei Z, Li T, Lei TC (1998) Laser cladding of Ni-Cr3C2/(Ni+Cr) composite coating. Surf Coat Technol 110(1):81–85, 10

  18. 18.

    Yeung CF, Mei D (1997) Investigation on the microstructure of spray coating. J Mater Process Technol 68(3):275–278, 15

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to D. K. Dwivedi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Harsha, S., Dwivedi, D.K. & Agarwal, A. Influence of CrC addition in Ni-Cr-Si-B flame sprayed coatings on microstructure, microhardness and wear behaviour. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 38, 93–101 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-007-1072-2

Download citation


  • Chromium carbide particles
  • Ni base alloy coating
  • Flame spraying
  • Mild steel
  • Normal load
  • Abrasive wear
  • Post spray heat treatment
  • Microhardness and microstructure