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The Annals of Regional Science

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 143–177 | Cite as

The neglected heterogeneity of spatial agglomeration and co-location patterns of creative employment: evidence from Portugal

  • Sara Santos Cruz
  • Aurora A. C. TeixeiraEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Empirical literature on the geographical location of creative activities has been traditionally based on the spatial analysis of industries, often disregarding the creative employment that lies outside the necessarily limited boundaries of creative industries. As an extension to the most recent methodologies using industry and occupational data on industrial cluster analysis, this paper analyses agglomeration and co-location patterns of core creative activities, considering both ‘embedded’ (creative professionals working outside the creative sectors) and ‘specialized’ (creative professionals working in the creative sectors) creative employment. Using location quotients and principal component factor and cluster analyses, applied to all 308 Portuguese municipalities, we found that the geographical agglomeration and co-location patterns of core creative groups differ substantially. The typical arguments sustained by the literature—the tendency of creative industries/employment to agglomerate and co-locate in large metropolises—are only supported in the case of knowledge-intensive activities subjected to Intellectual Property Rights, most notably ‘Advertising/Marketing’, ‘Publishing’, ‘TV/Radio’, and ‘Software/Digital Media’, densely concentrated and co-located in highly developed, large urban centres, with high levels of human capital. These arguments do not hold for the traditional creative activities of ‘Architecture’, ‘Design/Visual Arts’ and ‘Crafts’, which, although co-located, appear mostly dispersed with small concentrations around intermediate urban centres. ‘Teaching/training/research’ present quite dispersed geographical patterns with some clusterization around municipalities with tertiary education institutions. ‘Film/video/photography’ and ‘Music/Performing Arts’ show some dispersion throughout the Portuguese territory with concentration around small urban centres and in rural areas. It is evident that, from agglomeration to co-location patterns, creative employment reveals heterogeneous characteristics across creative groups.

JEL Classification

C01 R12 R30 

Notes

Acknowledgments

A word of sincere appreciation to the referees for their insightful comments and suggestions. The authors are also grateful to Professor Armindo Carvalho (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal) for the valuable suggestions. We acknowledge the courtesy of the GEE/MEE—Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos/Ministry of Economy and Employment, Portugal, for permitting the access to data which turned this study possible. The GEE/MEE is not responsible for the results and interpretations contained in this paper. These are of the authors’ full responsibility. This study had the financial support of the Portuguese government—Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Ministry of Education and Science, and was co-financed by the European Social Fund (FCT Doctoral Grant SFRH-BD-69571-2010).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CEF.UP, Faculdade de EconomiaUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia do PortoUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.INESC PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.OBEGEFPortoPortugal

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