Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has become increasingly popular as an alternative to lateral closing wedge osteotomy for the treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis with varus deformity. The present systematic review was conducted to provide an objective analysis of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes following previous knee osteotomy (medial opening wedge vs. lateral closing wedge).
A literature search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library database) was made, in addition to manual search of major orthopaedic journals. The methodological quality of each of the studies was assessed on the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale and Effective Practice and Organization of Care. A total of ten studies were included in the review. There were eight studies with Level IV and two studies with Level III evidence.
Eight studies reported clinical and radiologic scores. Comparative studies between TKA following medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO did not demonstrate statistically significant clinical and radiologic differences. The revision rates were similar. However, more technical issues during TKA surgery after lateral closing wedge HTO were mentioned than the medial open wedge group. The quadriceps snip, tibial tubercle osteotomy, and lateral soft tissue release were more frequently needed in the lateral closing wedge HTO group. In addition, because of loss of proximal tibia bone geometry in the lateral closing wedge HTO group, concerns such as tibia stem impingement in the lateral tibial cortex was noted.
The present systematic review suggests that TKA after medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO showed similar performance. Clinical and radiologic outcome including revision rates did not statistically differ from included studies. However, there are more surgical technical concerns in TKA conversion from lateral closing wedge HTO than from the medial opening wedge HTO group.
Level of evidence
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Conflict of interest
No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article. No funds were received in support of this study.
Jae Hwi Han and Jae-Hyuk Yang contributed equally to this work as co-first authors.
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Han, J.H., Yang, J., Bhandare, N.N. et al. Total knee arthroplasty after failed high tibial osteotomy: a systematic review of open versus closed wedge osteotomy. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 24, 2567–2577 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-015-3807-1
- Total knee arthroplasty
- High tibial osteotomy
- Systematic review