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Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: comparison between manual and computer-assisted techniques

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The purpose of our study was to compare clinical and radiological results of two groups of patients treated for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee with either conventional or computer-assisted open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Goals of surgical treatment were a correction of the mechanical axis between 2° and 6° of valgus and a modification of posterior tibial slope between −2° and +2°.


Twenty-four patients (27 knees) affected by varus knee deformity and operated with HTO were prospectively followed-up. They were randomly divided in two groups, A (11 patients, conventional treatment) and B (13 patients, navigated treatment). The American Knee Society Score and the Modified Cincinnati Rating System Questionnaire were used for clinical assessment. All patients were radiologically evaluated with a comparative lower limb weight-bearing digital radiograph, a standard digital anteroposterior, a latero-lateral radiograph of the knee, and a Rosenberg view.


Patients were followed-up at a mean of 39 months. Clinical evaluation showed no statistical difference (n.s.) between the two groups. Radiological results showed an 86% reproducibility in achieving a mechanical axis of 182°–186° in group B compared to a 23% in group A (p = 0.0392); furthermore, in group B, we achieved a modification of posterior tibial slope between −2° and +2° in 100% of patients, while in group A, this goal was achieved only in 24% of cases (p = 0.0021).


High tibial osteotomy with navigator is more accurate and reproducible in the correction of the deformity compared to standard technique.

Level of evidence

Therapeutic study, Level II.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest with this study.

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Correspondence to M. Pagnottelli.

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Iorio, R., Pagnottelli, M., Vadalà, A. et al. Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: comparison between manual and computer-assisted techniques. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 21, 113–119 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-011-1785-5

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  • Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy
  • mFTA
  • Tibial slope
  • Computer-assisted technique