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Decision-aiding tools in innovative product development contexts

Abstract

The complexity and uncertainty that exist in New Product Development (NPD) processes require a comprehensive approach to deal with a problem that involves people, technology and organisations. An effective approach should integrate tools that facilitate communication, the interpretation of different individual visions and collective problem structuring with tools that analytically study the process activities of NPD. This paper presents the results of a study that began from an observation of the phenomena involved in an NPD process and from the analysis of some tools from different domains (Product Lifecycle Management, Management Science/Operation Research, and Knowledge Management). The analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of the tools suggested a general framework, the Hybrid Approach, for the systematic integration of tools, from different perspectives, where typological decision-aiding situations are recognised and modelled and where context and communication in design are considered.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The term “Development” thus represents not only a basilar decision process but also a CoA as described in Sect. 2. In the first case, the activity owner is the problem owner; in the other case, the activity owner is the analyst. For example, when development represents the decision process, this means that the problem owner must construct solutions but has clear objectives. In that case, the analyst can help him by completely developing in his place (Dev CoA) or only by verifying the link between objectives and solutions (Contr CoA).

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Correspondence to Francesca Montagna.

Appendix: list of tools (or families of tools) proposed in Table 5

Appendix: list of tools (or families of tools) proposed in Table 5

  1. 1.

    Real Options Valuation (ROV) methods

  2. 2.

    Portfolio Management methods (Cooper et al. 2001)

  3. 3.

    “Score card” Method (Cooper et al. 2001)

  4. 4.

    “Roadmap” Method (Hunt et al. 2004)

  5. 5.

    Strategic choice Approach (STRAD) (Friend 1989)

  6. 6.

    Focus Group Methods (Kontio et al. 2004)

  7. 7.

    Experiential Interviews Techniques (Griffin and Hauser 1996)

  8. 8.

    Kano Model (Clausing 1994)

  9. 9.

    Empathic Design Methods (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  10. 10.

    Contextual Inquiry Techniques (Holtzblatt and Beyer 1993)

  11. 11.

    Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) (Zaltman 1997)

  12. 12.

    Kansei Analysis Method (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  13. 13.

    The Mind of the Market (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  14. 14.

    “Means-End Chain” (Gutman 1982) or “Value-Systems” (Rokeach 1973) Methods (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  15. 15.

    Affinity Diagrams or K-J Analysis Methods (Mizuno 1988)

  16. 16.

    Customer-based Needs-Grouping Methods (Griffin and Hauser 1993)

  17. 17.

    Web-based Methods (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  18. 18.

    Soft System Methodology (SSM) (Chekland 1981) (Presley et al. 2000)

  19. 19.

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (Saaty 1980) (Thomas 1993; Presley et al. 2000)

  20. 20.

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Method

  21. 21.

    Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) Diagrams

  22. 22.

    Brainstorming (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  23. 23.

    Morphological Analysis Technique (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  24. 24.

    Group Sessions Method (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  25. 25.

    Forced Relationships Method (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  26. 26.

    Six Hats Method (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  27. 27.

    Inventive Templates Technique (Goldenberg et al. 1999a, b)

  28. 28.

    Lead users Method (Von Hippel 1986)

  29. 29.

    Set-based Design Method (Ward et al. 1995)

  30. 30.

    Subjective objective system (Ziv-Av and Reich 2005)

  31. 31.

    Synthesis by morphology (Hari et al. 2004)

  32. 32.

    Controlled Convergence Method (Pugh 1990)

  33. 33.

    Value Engineering method

  34. 34.

    33b. Conjoint Analysis and Web-based Conjoint Analysis Methods (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  35. 35.

    Cost-benefit Analysis Method

  36. 36.

    Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods (e.g., ELECTRE methods (Roy 1996)

  37. 37.

    Freehand drawings

  38. 38.

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems

  39. 39.

    Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems

  40. 40.

    Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) systems

  41. 41.

    Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT)

  42. 42.

    Simulation and Combinatorial Methods (Loch et al. 2001)

  43. 43.

    Virtual Prototyping Models

  44. 44.

    Rapid Prototyping Methods and tools

  45. 45.

    Assembly Modelling Techniques

  46. 46.

    Multi-objective Optimization Methods

  47. 47.

    Collaborative Optimization Methods (CO) (Norese et al. 2007)

  48. 48.

    Group technology Approaches

  49. 49.

    Graph theory Diagrams

  50. 50.

    Virtual Manufacturing Techniques

  51. 51.

    Rapid Manufacturing Methods and tools

  52. 52.

    Computer-aided Production Engineering (CAPE) or Computer Aided Production Planning (CAPP) systems

  53. 53.

    Structured Group Management techniques (Thomas 1993)

  54. 54.

    Gantt Charts

  55. 55.

    Critical Path Diagrams and PERT Diagrams

  56. 56.

    Action Plans or Time tables

  57. 57.

    Projects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2) Methodology (Rashid and Ismail 2007)

  58. 58.

    Activity Based Management (ABM) or Activity Based Costing (ABC) Methods

  59. 59.

    Risk Management Methods and techniques

  60. 60.

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) methodology

  61. 61.

    EDM (Engineering Data Management), PDM (Product Data Management), PIM (Product Information Management), TDM (Technical Data Management), eBOP (Electronic Bill of Processes) systems

  62. 62.

    Tools or systems for visualisation without file format changes (i.e., JT)

  63. 63.

    Tools or systems for data exchange with different formats (i.e., Intermediate data exchange formats)

  64. 64.

    Tools or systems for data exchange with meta-formats

  65. 65.

    MS COM/DCOM, CORBA e J2EE technologies

  66. 66.

    IGES, VDA-FS, STEP-ISO 10303 etc.

  67. 67.

    Open Standard, Open Source and Peer to Peer communications tools

  68. 68.

    Design Structure Matrix

  69. 69.

    Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving Methods (Durfee et al. 1989)

  70. 70.

    Agent-based Approaches (Madhusudan 2005)

  71. 71.

    Collaborative Knowledge Management Systems (Tiwana and Ramesh 2001)

  72. 72.

    Shared Mental Models (Cannon-Bowers et al. 1993)

  73. 73.

    Boundary objects (Boland and Tenkasi 1995)

  74. 74.

    Product Range Models (Costa and Young 2001)

  75. 75.

    Knowledge Connection Models (Popovic 2004)

  76. 76.

    Mintzberg Model (Mintzberg et al. 1976)

  77. 77.

    Trial/Repeat Analysis Method (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  78. 78.

    Recursive Analysis Method (Dahan and Hauser 2001)

  79. 79.

    Econometric methods (Pringle et al. 1982)

  80. 80.

    Pre-Test-Market Models (Urban and Katz 1983)

  81. 81.

    Preference Distribution Models (Hauser and Shugan 1983)

  82. 82.

    PZB Model (Parasuraman et al. 1985)

  83. 83.

    SERVQUAL Model (Parasuraman et al. 1988)

  84. 84.

    Two Way Model (Schvaneveldt et al. 1991)

  85. 85.

    Lot sizing algorithms and techniques

  86. 86.

    Dynamic Lot sizing algorithms and techniques

  87. 87.

    Statistical Inventory Models

  88. 88.

    Multi-period Models

  89. 89.

    Aggregate Production Planning

  90. 90.

    Heuristic algorithms and techniques

  91. 91.

    MRP systems

  92. 92.

    MRPII systems

  93. 93.

    ERP systems

  94. 94.

    Integrated Management Systems (IMS)

  95. 95.

    JIT techniques (e.g., Kanban techniques)

  96. 96.

    Scheduling Algorithms

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Montagna, F. Decision-aiding tools in innovative product development contexts. Res Eng Design 22, 63–86 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00163-011-0103-z

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Keywords

  • NPD
  • NPD management
  • Decision-aiding tools
  • Product lifecycle management (PLM)