A consistent variational formulation of Bishop nonlocal rods

  • R. BarrettaEmail author
  • S. Ali Faghidian
  • F. Marotti de Sciarra
Original Article


Thick rods are employed in nanotechnology to build modern electromechanical systems. Design and optimization of such structures can be carried out by nonlocal continuum mechanics which is computationally convenient when compared to atomistic strategies. Bishop’s kinematics is able to describe small-scale thick rods if a proper mathematical model of nonlocal elasticity is formulated to capture size effects. In all papers on the matter, nonlocal contributions are evaluated by replacing Eringen’s integral convolution with the consequent (but not equivalent) differential equation governed by Helmholtz’s differential operator. As notorious in integral equation theory, this replacement is possible for convolutions, defined in unbounded domains, governed by averaging kernels which are Green’s functions of differential operators. Indeed, Eringen himself, in order to study nonlocal problems defined in unbounded domains, such as screw dislocations and wave propagation, suggested to replace integro-differential equations with differential conditions. A different scenario appears in Bishop rod mechanics where nonlocal integral convolutions are defined in bounded structural domains, so that Eringen’s nonlocal differential equation has to be supplemented with additional boundary conditions. The objective is achieved by formulating the governing nonlocal equations by a proper variational statement. The new methodology provides an amendment of previous contributions in the literature and is illustrated by investigating the elastostatic behavior of simple structural schemes. Exact solutions of Bishop rods are evaluated in terms of nonlocal parameter and cross section gyration radius. Both hardening and softening structural responses are predictable with a suitable tuning of the parameters.


Bishop rod Nonlocal elasticity Integral and differential laws Analytical modeling NEMS 



The financial support of the Italian Ministry for University and Research (P.R.I.N. National Grant 2017, Project Code 2017J4EAYB; University of Naples Federico II Research Unit) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Structures for Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

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