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Modeling and simulation of the curing process of epoxy resins using finite elements

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Abstract

This article discusses several aspects of the curing process in polymers. First, we collect experimental data for an Araldite epoxy resin and calibrate the classical model of Kamal–Sourour. It is shown that there are strong correlations between the parameters in the material parameter identification process. Thus, a curing kinetics model with reduced number of parameters is proposed, which is calibrated to the experimental test data. Second, the model is implemented into a finite element program. Here, high-order, time-adaptive time integration schemes are chosen to treat the inherent instability resulting from the curing kinetics model. Since the curing variable determines the heat source in the heat equation, a particular finite element approach is applied. After the spatial discretization, we arrive at a large system of ordinary differential equations, where the diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta method in combination with the Multilevel-Newton method is chosen, which can be seen as an analogy to internal variable theories in nonlinear quasi-static finite element approaches. Temperature and curing-dependent heat capacity and heat conductivity are considered as well. Numerical examples and a new validation experiment conclude the investigations.

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Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge our colleagues at Clausthal University of Technology Dr. J. Wittrock and K. Bode for their support in the shrinkage experiments. Furthermore, we would like to thank Marco Löffelholz for his support in performing some validation experiments

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Correspondence to S. Hartmann.

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Communicated by Johlitz, Laiarinandrasana and Marco.

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Leistner, C., Hartmann, S., Abliz, D. et al. Modeling and simulation of the curing process of epoxy resins using finite elements. Continuum Mech. Thermodyn. 32, 327–350 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00161-018-0708-9

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Keywords

  • Finite elements
  • Heat conduction
  • Curing
  • Modeling
  • Material parameter identification
  • Multilevel-Newton algorithm