Advertisement

Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

, Volume 60, Issue 6, pp 2571–2595 | Cite as

Topology optimization of continuum structures under hybrid additive-subtractive manufacturing constraints

  • Yong Sheng Han
  • Bin XuEmail author
  • Lei Zhao
  • Yi Min Xie
Industrial Application
  • 354 Downloads

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) makes it possible to fabricate complicated parts that are otherwise difficult to manufacture by subtractive machining. However, such parts often require temporary support material to prevent the component from collapsing or warping during fabrication. The support material results in increased material consumption, manufacturing time, and clean-up costs. The surface precision and dimensional accuracy of the workpieces from AM are far from the engineering requirement due to layer upon layer manufacturing. Subtractive machining (SM), by contrast, can fabricate parts to satisfy the requirements of surface precision and dimensional accuracy. Nevertheless, the components need to be relatively uncomplicated for subtractive manufacturing. Thus, hybrid additive-subtractive manufacturing (HASM) is gaining increasing attention in order to take advantages of both processes. There is little research on the topological design methodology for this hybrid manufacturing technology. To address this issue, a method based on geometry approach for topology optimization of continuum structure is proposed in this paper. Both additive manufacturing and subtractive machining constraints are simultaneously considered in each topology optimization iteration. The topology optimization is performed by the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by several 3D compliance minimization problems.

Keywords

Topology optimization Additive manufacturing Subtractive machining Hybrid additive-subtractive manufacturing BESO method Manufacturability 

Notes

Funding information

This work was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11872311).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahn SH, Montero M, Odell D, Roundy S, Wright PK (2002) Anisotropic material properties of fused deposition modeling ABS. Rapid Prototyp J 8:248–257.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13552540210441166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allaire G, Dapogny C, Estevez R, Faure A, Michailidis G (2017) Structural optimization under overhang constraints imposed by additive manufacturing technologies. J Comput Phys 351:295–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2017.09.041 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Aziz MSA, Ueda T, Furumoto T, Abe S, Hosokawa A, Yassin A (2012) Study on machinability of laser sintered materials fabricated by layered manufacturing system: influence of different hardness of sintered materials. Proc CIRP 4:79–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2012.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bendsøe MP (1989) Optimal shape design as a material distribution problem. Struct Optim 1(4):193–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01650949 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bendsøe M, Kikuchi N (1988) Generating optimal topologies in structural design using a homogenization method. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 71(2):197–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7825(88)90086-2 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Bikas H, Stavropoulos P, Chryssolouris G (2016) Additive manufacturing methods and modelling approaches: a critical review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(1–4):389–405.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7576-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boschetto A, Giordano V, Veniali F (2013) Surface roughness prediction in fused deposition modelling by neural networks. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(9–12):2727–2742.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4687-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brackett D, Ashcroft I, Hague R (2011) Topology optimization for additive manufacturing, AustinGoogle Scholar
  9. Choi DS, Lee SH, Shin BS, Whang KH, Song YA, Park SH, Jee HS (2001) Development of a direct metal freeform fabrication technique using CO2 laser welding and milling technology. J Mater Process Technol 113(1–3):273–279.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00652-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delgado J, Ciurana J, Rodríguez CA (2012) Influence of process parameters on part quality and mechanical properties for DMLS and SLM with iron-based materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 60(5–8):601–610.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3643-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Du W, Bai Q, Zhang B (2018) Machining characteristics of 18Ni-300 steel in additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(5–8):2509–2519.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1364-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eschenauer HA, Olhoff N (2001) Topology optimization of continuum structures: a review. Appl Mech Rev 54(4):331–390.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1388075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaynor AT, Guest JK (2016) Topology optimization considering over-hang constraints: eliminating sacrificial support material in additive manufacturing through design. Struct Multidiscip Optim 54:1157–1172.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-016-1551-x MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gersborg AR, Andreasen CS (2011) An explicit parameterization for casting constraints in gradient driven topology optimization. Struct Multidiscip Optim 44:875–881.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-011-0632-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gorunov AI, Gilmutdinov AK (2016) Study of the effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of the specimens obtained by the method of direct metal deposition. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(9–12):25672574.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8405-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guo X, Zhang W, Zhong W (2014) Doing topology optimization explicitly and geometrically-a new moving morphable components based framework. J Appl Mech T of The ASME 81(8):081009.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4027609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guo X, Zhang W, Zhang J, Yuan J (2016) Explicit structural topology optimization based on moving morphable components (MMC) with curved skeletons. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 310:711–748.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2016.07.018 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guo X, Zhou J, Zhang W, Du Z, Liu C, Liu Y (2017) Self-supporting structure design in additive manufacturing through explicit topology optimization. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 323:27–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2017.05.003 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harzheim L, Graf G (2006) A review of optimization of cast parts using topology optimization. II-topology optimization with manufacturing constraints. Struct Multidiscip Optim 31(5):388–399.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-005-0554-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang X, Xie YM (2009) Bi-directional evolutionary topology optimization of continuum structures with one or multiple materials. Comput Mech 43:393–401.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00466-008-0312-0 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang X, Xie YM (2010) Evolutionary topology optimization of continuum structures: methods and applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jeng JY, Lin MC (2001) Mold fabrication and modification using hybrid processes of selective laser cladding and milling. J Mater Process Technol 110(1):98–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(00)00850-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karunakaran KP, Suryakumar S, Pushpa V, Akula S (2010) Low cost integration of additive and subtractive processes for hybrid layered manufacturing. Robot Cim-Int Manuf 26(5):490–499.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2010.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kruth JP, Leu MC, Nakagawa T (1998) Progress in additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping. CRIP Ann-Manuf Technol 47(2):525–540.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63240-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kranz J, Herzog D, Emmelmann C (2015) Design guidelines for laser additive manufacturing of lightweight structures in TiAl6V4. J Laser Appl 27(S1):S14001.  https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4885235 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu J, Gaynor AT, Chen S et al (2018) Current and future trends in topology optimization for additive manufacturing. Struct Multidiscip Optim 57:2457.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-018-1994-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mirzendehdel AM, Suresh K (2016) Support structure constrained topology optimization for additive manufacturing. Comput Aided Des 81:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2016.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Qian X (2013) Topology optimization in B-spline space. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 265:15–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2013.06.001 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Rong JH, Xie YM, Yang XY (2001) An improved method for evolutionary structural optimisation against buckling. Comput Struct 79(3):253–263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-7949(00)00145-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rozvany GIN (2001) Aims, scope, methods, history and unified terminology of computer-aided topology optimization in structural mechanics. Struct Multidiscip Optim 21(2):90–108.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s001580050174 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sethian JA, Wiegmann A (2000) Structural boundary design via level set and immersed interface methods. Int J Numer Methods Eng 163(2):489–528.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.2000.6581 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. Song YA, Park S, Choi D, Jee H (2005) 3D welding and milling: part I—a direct approach for freeform fabrication of metallic prototypes. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(9):1057–1062.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2004.11.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sørensen SN, Lund E (2013) Topology and thickness optimization of laminated composites including manufacturing constraints. Struct Multidiscip Optim 48(2):249–265.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-013-0904-y MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Suzuki K, Kikuchi N (1991) A homogenization method for shape and topology optimization. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 93(3):291–318.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7825(91)90245-2 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. Terrazas CA, Gaytan SM, Rodriguez E, Espalin D, Murr LE, Medina F, Wicker RB (2014) Multi-material metallic structure fabrication using electron beam melting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71(1–4):33–45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5449-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang MY, Wang X, Guo D (2003) A level set method for structural topology optimization. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 192:227–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-7825(02)00559-5 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang XC, Laoui T, Bonse J, Kruth JP, Lauwers B, Froyen L (2002) Direct selective laser sintering of hard metal powders: experimental study and simulation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 19(5):351–357.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s001700200024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu J, Wang CCL, Zhang X, Westermann R (2016) Self-supporting rhombic infill structures for additive manufacturing. Comput Aided Des 80:32–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2016.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wu J, Aage N, Westermann R, Sigmund O (2018) Infill optimization for additive manufacturing – approaching bone-like porous structures. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 24:1127–1140.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2017.2655523 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xie YM, Steven GP (1993) A simple evolutionary procedure for structural optimization. Comput Struct 49(5):885–896.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7949(93)90035-C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xie YM, Steven GP (1994) Optimal design of multiple load case structures using an evolutionary procedure. Eng Comput 11(4):295–302.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02644409410799290 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  42. Xie YM, Steven GP (1997) Evolutionary structural optimization. Springer-Verlag; ISBN 3-540-76153-5, London, England, p 200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xiong XH, Zhang HO, Wang GL, Wang GX (2010) Hybrid plasma deposition and milling for an aeroengine double helix integral impeller made of superalloy. Robot Cim-Int Manuf 26(4):291–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2009.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xu B, Han YS, Lei Z, Xie YM (2018) Topology optimization of continuum structures for natural frequencies considering casting constraints. Eng Optim 51(6):941–960. 1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0305215X.2018.1506771 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ye ZP, Zhang ZJ, Jin X, Xiao MZ, JZ S (2016) Study of hybrid additive manufacturing based on pulse laser wire depositing and milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(5):2237–2248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8894-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang P, Liu J, To AC (2017) Role of anisotropic properties on topology optimization of additive manufactured load bearing structures. Scr Mater 135:148–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.10.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhou M, Rozvany GIN (1991) The COC algorithm, part II: topological, geometrical and generalized shape optimization. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 89(1):309–336.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7825(91)90046-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhu JH, Gu XJ, Zhang WH, Beckers P (2013b) Structural design of aircraft skin stretch-forming die using topology optimization. J Comput Appl Math 246:278–288.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2012.09.001 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhu Z, Dhokia V, Nassehi A, Newman ST (2013a) A review of hybrid manufacturing processes – state of the art and future perspectives. Int J Comput Integr Manuf 26:596–615.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0951192X.2012.749530 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zuo KT, Chen LP, Zhang YQ, Yang J (2006) Manufacturing- and machining-based topology optimization. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 27(5–6):531–536.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-004-2210-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Sheng Han
    • 1
  • Bin Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lei Zhao
    • 1
  • Yi Min Xie
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Structural Health Monitoring and Control, School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering & ArchitectureNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.XIE Archi-Structure Design (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.ShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations