Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

, Volume 60, Issue 5, pp 2177–2187 | Cite as

Design optimization of a newly developed aluminum-steel multi-material electric bus body structure

  • C. L. Fu
  • Y. C. BaiEmail author
  • C. Lin
  • W. W. Wang
Industrial Application


Due to the constraints of power battery energy density, light-weight electric bus body structure is attracting more and more attentions with the capability to extend mileage. In this paper, an aluminum-steel multi-material electric bus body structure is newly developed and corresponding design optimization is performed for lightweight design while satisfying the constraints. The finite element model of the bus body structure is constructed and validated by experimental modal test. The optimization objective is to minimize the total mass, while bending, torsional stiffness, bending and torsional frequency are chosen as the corresponding constraints. The thicknesses of the pre-determined components are screened out using sensitivity analysis to determine the candidate design variables. Continuous and discrete gradient-based optimizers are employed to generate the optimal solutions, which are demonstrated that these new designs could bring benefits in terms of structural performance and structural weight.


Electric bus Lightweight design Design optimization; Aluminum-steel Modal tests 


Funding information

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51805032), Beijing Institute of Technology Research Fund Program for Young Scholars, and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Beijing City (NO. Z161100001416007).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

158_2019_2292_MOESM1_ESM.hist (1.6 mb)
ESM 1 (HIST 1611 kb)
158_2019_2292_MOESM2_ESM.hist (1 mb)
ESM 2 (HIST 1025 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. L. Fu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Y. C. Bai
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. W. Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in BeijingBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina

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