This educational paper describes the implementation aspects, user interface design considerations and workflow potential of the recently published TopOpt 3D App. The app solves the standard minimum compliance problem in 3D and allows the user to change design settings interactively at any point in time during the optimization. Apart from its educational nature, the app may point towards future ways of performing industrial design. Instead of the usual geometrize, then model and optimize approach, the geometry now automatically adapts to the varying boundary and loading conditions. The app is freely available for iOS at Apple’s App Store and at http://www.topopt.dtu.dk/TopOpt3D for Windows and OSX.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
We define interactive update rates to be less than 10 seconds, which is about the limit for keeping the user’s attention (Nielsen 1993).
The best experience will be achieved using newer devices such as iPhone 5s and iPad Air.
On iOS and OSX we use the optimized BLAS and LAPACK bundled in the operating system and on Windows we use AMD’s core math library (AMD core math library 2014).
AMD core math library (2014). http://developer.amd.com/tools-and-sdks/cpu-development/cpu-libraries/amd-core-math-library-acml/
BLAS Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (2014). http://www.netlib.org/blas/
LAPACK - Linear Algebra PACKage (2014). http://www.netlib.org/lapack/
Aage N, Andreassen E, Lazarov B (2014) Topology optimization using PETSc: An easy-to-use, fully parallel, open source topology optimization framework. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, pp 1–8. doi:10.1007/s00158-014-1157-0
Aage N, Nobel-Jørgensen M, Andreasen C, Sigmund O (2013) Interactive topology optimization on hand-held devices. Struct Multidiscip Optim 47(1):1–6
Amir O, Aage N, Lazarov B (2014) On multigrid-CG for efficient topology optimization. Struct Multidiscip Optim 49(5):815–829. doi:10.1007/s00158-013-1015-5
Bendsøe M, Kikuchi N (1988) Generating optimal topologies in structural design using a homogenization method. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 71:197–224
Bendsøe M, Sigmund O (2003) Topology Optimization: Theory, Methods and Applications. Engineering online library. Springer
Bowman DA, Kruijff E, LaViola JJ Jr, Poupyrev I (2004) 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice. Addison-Wesley Professional
Davis T, Duff I, Amestoy P, Gilbert J, Larimore S, Natarajan EP, Chen Y, Hager W, Rajamanickam S (2014) Suite sparse: a suite of sparse matrix packages. http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/SuiteSparse/
Dyn N, Hormann K, Kim SJ, Levin D (2001) Optimizing 3d triangulations using discrete curvature analysis.Mathematical methods for curves and surfaces, pp 135–146
Khan A, Mordatch I, Fitzmaurice G, Matejka J, Kurtenbach G (2008) ViewCube: a 3d orientation indicator and controller. In: Proceedings of the 2008 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics and games. ACM, pp 17–25
Lorensen WE, Cline HE (1987) Marching cubes: A high resolution 3d surface construction algorithm. In: ACM Siggraph Computer Graphics, vol 21. ACM , pp 163–169
Miller RB (1968) Response time in man-computer conversational transactions. In: Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I. ACM, pp 267–277
Nguyen TH, Paulino GH, Song J, Le CH (2010) A computational paradigm for multiresolution topology optimization (mtop). Struct Multidisc Optim 41:525–539. doi:10.1007/s00158-009-0443-8
Nielsen J (1993) Usability Engineering. Academic Press Inc
Nielsen J (1994) Usability engineering. Elsevier
Rooney B (2011) The wall street journal: ipad 2 more powerful than 1990s supercomputer. http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2011/05/11/ipad-2-more-powerful-than-1990s-supercomputer/. Accessed: 2014-06-30
Sigmund O (2001) A 99 line topology optimization code written in Matlab. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (1999), pp 120–127
Sigmund O, Maute K (2013) Topology optimization approaches. Struct Multidiscip Optim 48(6):1031–1055
Tcherniak D, Sigmund O (2001) A web-based topology optimization program. Struct Multidiscip Optim 22(3):179–187
Tognazzini B (2014) First principles of interaction design (revised & expanded). http://asktog.com/atc/principles-of-interaction-design/. Accessed Oct 5 2014
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Villum foundation through the NextTop project. The authors would also like to extend their gratitude to the members of the DTU-TopOpt group for their invaluable input on the design and testing of the TopOpt 3D App.
About this article
Cite this article
Nobel-Jørgensen, M., Aage, N., Nyman Christiansen, A. et al. 3D interactive topology optimization on hand-held devices. Struct Multidisc Optim 51, 1385–1391 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-014-1214-8
- Topology optimization