Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Culture codes of scientific concepts in global scientific online discourse

  • 42 Accesses


This paper utilizes Rapaille’s (2006) concept of culture codes and Hall’s (2001) encoding and decoding model of communication to identify the culture codes of scientific concepts in global scientific online discourse. As an example, we attempted to identify the culture codes of the concept of “image”, because this concept can be interpreted in different ways in Russian and international scientific discourse. To identify these codes, we analyzed the interpretations of the concept of “image” in scientific online discourse in Russia and abroad. We studied the titles, key words, and abstracts of papers published in 2014–2018 that appeared in the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) and the Scopus abstract and citation database. As a result, we identified the culture codes of the concept of “image” in Russian and international scientific online discourse and compared the culture codes of RSCI-indexed and Scopus-indexed papers. The method we utilized may be used for revealing the culture codes of any scientific concept (using any citation database), which can contribute to revealing and understanding the interpretations of these concepts by researchers from different countries.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Cambridge Online Dictionary

  2. 2.


  3. 3.

    BusinessDictionary (BD)

  4. 4.


  5. 5.

    Cambridge Online Dictionary


  1. Alvaré BT (2017) “Do they think we live in huts?”—cultural essentialism and the challenges of facilitating professional development in cross-cultural settings. Ethnogr Educ 12(1):33–48

  2. Banerjee P (2003) Narration, discourse and dialogue: issues in the management of inter-cultural innovation. AI Soc 17:207–224.

  3. Baranova VV (2015) K voprosu o finansovom imidzhe predpriyatiya [revisiting the financial image of a company]. Her Int Mark Inst 1:26–32 (in Russian)

  4. Belobragin VV (2018) Sotsialno-psykhologicheskie problemy imidzha kak sotsialnogo stereotipa i rezultata sotsialnikh ustanovok [socio-psychological problems of image as a social stereotype resulting from social attitudes]. Vestn Russ New Univ 1:131–134

  5. Bernatskaya AA, Samanova SA (2017) Vliyanie sotsialnogo imidzha strany na razvitie turizma v Rossii [Infulence of the counrty’s social image on the development of tourism in Russia]. Innovative development of economy. The future of Russia. In: Proceedings of the IV All-Russian (national) scientific and practice conference, pp 103–108 (in Russian)

  6. Boriskina NG, Shevyrev SL, Khomich VG (2014) Imidzh rudonosnikh ploschadey Yugovostochnogo Primorya po materialam distantsionnogo zondirovaniya [Image of ore-bearing areas of south–east of the Primorye from materials of remote sounding. Explor Conserv Miner Res 6:30–35 (in Russian)

  7. Chovdyrova GS, Klimenko TS (2018) Vliyanie dissonansa na formirovanie professionalnogo imidzha politseyskikh [Influence of disharmony on shaping the professional image of a policeman]. Issues of methodology of human sciences: the contemporary context. Collection of materials of the International scientific and practical conference. Part II. Belgorod: APNI, pp 146–153 (in Russian)

  8. De Angeli A (2009) Cultural variations in virtual spaces design. AI Soc 24:213–223.

  9. De Conti Rivara G (2016) An approach through ammianus marcellinus’eyes to representations of late imperial pagan elites in terms of magic, divination, and religion. Byzantion Nea Hellas 35:35–58

  10. Duplouy A (2018) Pathways to archaic citizenship. Defining Citizenship in Archaic Greece. pp 1–49.

  11. Eco U (1976) A theory of semiotics. Indiana University Press, Indiana

  12. Enenko SS, Nadtochiy ZY (2015) Vliyanie russkoy pravoslavnoy tserkvi na sozdanie imidzha ministerstva oborony Rossiyskoy federatsii [Impact of the Russian Orthodox Church on creating the image of the Russian Ministry of Defense]. Youth Innov Her 4(2):65–67 (in Russian)

  13. Fadeev DA (2014) Intertekstualnye sredstva sozdaniya imidzha [Intertextual means of creating an image]. Cult Spirit Soc 14:164–169 (in Russian)

  14. Fardouly J, Vartanian LR (2015) Negative comparisons about one’s appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns. Body Image 12(1):82–88.

  15. Fardouly J et al (2015) Social comparisons on social media: THE impact of Facebook on young women’s body image concerns and mood. Body Image 13:38–45.

  16. Fominykh EV, Kuchinskaya TN (2016) Formirovanie vneshnego turisticheskogo imidzha Zabaykalskogo kraya RF v kontekste pogranichnogo sotrudnichestva s KNR [Formation of external tourist image for Transbaikal region of the Russian Federation in the context of cross-border cooperation with China]. Russ China Probl Strategic Coop 12:54–59 (in Russian)

  17. Gaidukova GN (2017) Formirovanie v massovom soznanii imidzha pozitivnykh identichnostey [Creating the image of positive identity in public consciousness] Education and science in the modern context. In: Proceedings of International research-to practice conference: in two volumes. Scientific cooperation center Interactive plus. Cheboksary, pp 252–254 (in Russain)

  18. Gayiduk VV, Lukyantsev AS (2017) Gosudarstvennaya politika upravleniya imidzhem territorii v nauchno-ekspertnom izmerenii [The state policy of making the image of a place from the perspective of scientific expertise]. Etnosotsium 8(110):29–38 (in Russian)

  19. Gevinner I (2014) Gendernye stereotipy: O chem svidetelstvuyut imidzhi zhenschin v populyarnykh zhenskikh zhurnalakh v SSSR i GDR? [Gender stereotypes: What do images of women in popular USSR and GDR magazines mean?] Labyrinth. J Philos Soc Sci 6:25–34 (in Russian)

  20. Ghaznavi J, Taylor LD (2015) Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: an analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media. Body Image 14:54–61.

  21. Glinskikh VN, Danolovski KN, Nechaev OV (2018) Trekhmernoe chislennoe modelirovanie signalov azimutalnogo mikrobokovogo karotazha v protsesse burenia [Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the signals of the azimuth microlaterolog resistivity in drilling]. Geol Geophys Develop Oil Gas Fields 10:32–39

  22. Gribok MV (2016) Videoinfografika dlya ustoichivogo razvitiya (na primere proekta VGTRK “Rossia v tsifrakh”) [Video infographics for sustainable development (on the example of VGTRK project “Russia in figures)] Intercarto. Intergris 22(1):198–206 (in Russian)

  23. Grosheva LN (2015) Vliyanie imidzha na zdorovie zhenshchiny [How image influences women’s health]. Health of the nation as the guarantee of state security. Collection of materials of scientific and practical conference. Moscow Region State University. Moscow, рр 24-27 (in Russian)

  24. Gusev NF, Petrova GV, Filippova AV, Nemereshina ON (2014) Perspektivy ispolzovaniya lekarstvennykh rasteniy v sovremennoy Rossii [Prospects of drug plants use in modern Russia] Orenburn state agrarian university herald 2(46):167–170 (in Russian)

  25. Hall S (2001) Encoding/decoding. Media and cultural studies. KeyWorks. Blackwell Publishers, NJ

  26. Hanser A, Li JC (2015) Opting out? Gated consumption, infant formula and China’s affluent urban consumers. China J 74:110–128

  27. Havaei M et al (2017) Brain tumor segmentation with deep neural networks. Med Image Anal 35:18–31.

  28. Holland G, Tiggemann M (2016) A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes. Body Image 17:100–110.

  29. Huang S-L, Ku H-H (2016) Brand image management for nonprofit organizations: exploring the relationships between websites, brand images and donations. J Electr Commer Res 17(1):80–96

  30. Janowczyk A, Madabhushi A (2016) Deep learning for digital pathology image analysis: a comprehensive tutorial with selected use cases. J Pathol Inform 7:29.

  31. Jean N et al (2016) Combining satellite imagery and machine learning to predict poverty. Science 353(6301):790–794.

  32. Ji Z et al (2014) Robust spatially constrained fuzzy c-means algorithm for brain MR image segmentation. Pattern Recogn 47(7):2454–2466.

  33. Khaidukov VG (2015) Obosnovanie algoritmov vydelenia rasseivayushchikh elementov geologicheskogo razreza po 3D seismicheskim dannym [Justification of the algorithms to extract scattering elements of the geological section by 3D seismic data]. Seism Surv Technol 4:51–60. Russian)

  34. Khavinson MY (2017) Modelirovanie nelineynoy dinamiki urovnya zanyatosti v regione (na primere regionov yuga Dalnego Vostoka Rossii [Modeling the non-linear dynamics of the employment rate in the region (the case of the Southern Russian Far East)]. Perm University Herald. Economy 12(4):575–591 (in Russian)

  35. Kitikar OV (2016) Organizatsia zdoroviesberegayushchey sredy v sovremennoi shkole na osnove imidzha pedagoga [Creating healthsaving environment in contemporary schools based on the image of a teacher]. Scientific discussion: issues of pedagogy and psychology. Collection of materials of XLVIII scientific and practical conference. Part III. Internauka 3(48):33–39 (in Russian)

  36. Kochetova LM, Burmistrova AV (2015) Istoricheskiy imidzh stolitsy Sibiri [Historical image of the capital of Siberia]. Science, education and innovation. In: Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference, pp 152–155 (in Russian)

  37. Krasulina TS, Kazakova EV (2015) Sportivnyy brending kak imidzh Rossii [Sport branding as the image of Russia]. Educ Sci Contemp Cond 3:287–290 (in Russian)

  38. Kuzheleva-Sagan IP, Suchkova NA (2016) Graphic design and public relations as a means of generating trust in internet services. AI Soc 31:381–386.

  39. Kuznetsova NV (2016) Kontsept imidzh i osobennosti imidzha Rossii v kontekste kultury i geopolitiki [The concept of image of Russia within the context of culture and geopolitics]. Current problems of humanitarian and legal knowledge within the context of innovation practices. Collection of articles. Humanitarian and social institute. Moscow, pp 35–39 (in Russian)

  40. Li C, Gore JC, Davatzikos C (2014) Multiplicative intrinsic component optimization (MICO) for MRI bias field estimation and tissue segmentation. Magn Reson Imaging 32(7):913–923.

  41. Lisina OV (2016) Konstruirovanie molodezhyu imidzha ZOZH-orientirovannogo cheloveka v usloviakh setevoy sotsializatsii: po materialam analiza kontenta akkauntov vizualnoy sotsseti Instagram [Constructin of image of a person oriented at a healthy life style by young people in the conditions of network socialization: based on the analysis of visual content of Instagram accounts. Soc Sociol Psychol Pedagog 2:49–51 (in Russian)

  42. Litjens G et al (2017) A survey on deep learning in medical image analysis. Med Image Anal 42:60–88.

  43. Luhmann N (2000) Organisation und Entscheidung [Organisation and Decision]. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 479p. (in German)

  44. Lukina OA, Savva LI, Gasanenko EA, Soldatchenko AL (2018) Razvitie napravlennosti studenta tekhnicheskogo vuza na osoznanie lichnogo obraza i potentsiala kak usloviya formirovaniya professionalnogo imidzha [Developing the students’ commitment to creating their personal image and potential for further creating their professional image]. Issues of contemporary pedagogical education 59(4):60–64 (in Russian)

  45. Ma J, Fossum ER (2015) A pump-gate jot device with high conversion gain for a Quanta image sensor. IEEE J Electron Devices Soc 3(2):73–77.

  46. Markus HR, Kitayama S (1991) Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychol Rev 98(2):224–253.

  47. Martolina AS (2016) HR-brending kak sredstvo upravleniya imidzhem organizatsii [HR-branding as an image management tool]. III Leaders and HR-management forum dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Ryazan State University named for S. Yesenin, pp 56–59 (in Russian)

  48. Menze BH et al (2015) The multimodal brain tumor image segmentation benchmark (BRATS). IEEE Trans Med Imaging 34(10):1993–2024.

  49. Metlyaeva TV (2017) Issledovanie fenomena imidzha kak kulturologicheskogo yavleniya [Researching image as a cultural phenomenon]. The territory of new opportunities. Herald of Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service 1(36):188–199 (in Russian)

  50. Miragaia D, Brito M, Ferreira J (2016) The role of stakeholders in the efficiency of nonprofit sports clubs. Nonprofit Manag Leadersh 27(1):113–134

  51. Morozov EM (2016) Obraz svyaschennika v sredstvakh massovoy informatsii [The image of a priest in mass media]. Monit Public Opin Econ Soc Changes J 6(136):183–192 (in Russian)

  52. Myasnikova MA, Eyngorn AS (2017) Rol’ veduschego novostey v khode ekranno-klipovogo modelirovaniya [The role of the news presenter in screen clip TV space modeling]. Humanit Vector 12(2):116–121 (in Russian)

  53. Nakamura J (2017) Image sensors and signal processing for digital still cameras. Image Sens Signal Process Digital Still Cameras 1:2.

  54. Novikova TB (2016) IT-tekhnologii: imidzh cherez progress IT-rynka [IT-technologies: image of progress through IT-market]. Int J Fundam Appl Res 12(7):1290–1295 (in Russian)

  55. Oliveira FPM & Tavares JMRS (2014) Medical image registration: a review. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Eng 17(2):73–93.

  56. Omarova EM (2016) Rol’ semyi i shkoly v formirovanii positivnogo imidzha podrostka [The role of family and school in formation of a positive image of the teenager]. Mod High Technol 4(1):167–171 (in Russian)

  57. Parkhomenko EV, Nartov SA, Karpov DY (2018) Atipichnaya odontalgiya—Diangosticheskaya i terapevticheskaya model’ [Atypical odontalgia—Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma]. Russ Med J Med Rev 2(9):14–18 (in Russian)

  58. Peng H et al (2014) Extensible visualization and analysis for multidimensional images using Vaa3D. Nat Protoc 9(1):193–208.

  59. Perov AN (2017) K voprosu ob imidzhe rossiyskoy politsii skvoz prizmu pravovoy kultury sotrudnika OVD [Revisiting the image of the Russian police through the legal culture of internal affairs officers]. The issues of state and legal construction. A collection of articles. Orel pp 142–147 (in Russian)

  60. Petrova SA (2014) Avtorskaya identichot i ponyatie imidzha v literature: teoreticheskiy aspect [Author identity and the concept of image in literature: theoretical aspect]. Pushkin Read 19:232–236 (in Russian)

  61. Podgornova NA, Baryshnikova VM (2018) Integratsia mezhdunarodnykh migrantov v Rossii [Integration of international immigrants in Russia]. European Scientific Conference. Collection of Articles of X International Scientific and Practice Conference, pp 199–201 (in Russian)

  62. Posypanova OS, Posypanova SO (2017) Vospriyatie Rossiyskoy telereklamy inostrannoy molodezhiu [Perception of Russian TV advertising by foreign youth]. Soc Sociol Psychol Pedagog 12:97–101 (in Russian)

  63. Rapaille C (2006) The Culture Code: An Ingenious Way to Understand Why People Around the World Live and Buy as They Do. Broadway

  64. Rasmussen LB (2013) Cultural visions of technology. Paradoxes of panoptic and interactive perspectives and methods. AI Soc 28:177–178.

  65. Ratsiburskaya LV (2017) Mediaprostranstvo: ot rechevoy agressii k polozhitelnym imidzham [Media landscape: From hostile rhetoric to positive images]. In: Science in public dialogue: Values, communications, organization. Conference proceedings, pp 125–127 (in Russian)

  66. Razina TV, Volodarskaya EA (2017) Istochnikovaya baza dlya izucheniya imidzha uchenogo [Source database for researching the image of a scientist]. Human capital 2(98):6–11 (in Russian)

  67. Rozanova NN (2017) Imidzh, reputatsiya, brend: strategiya formirovaniya tsennosti vlasti [Image, reputation and brand: strategy of creating the value of authorities]. RUDN J Polit Sci 19(4):392–402 (in Russian)

  68. Savelieva EV (2017) Kharakteristiki i svoistva imidzha [Characteristics and properties of image]. The strategy of an enterprise for increasing its competitiveness 6:159–164 (in Russian)

  69. Semenova LM (2017) Vozniknovenie i stanovlenie imidzha na etapakh razvitiya chelovecheskogo obshchestva [Appearance and establishment of image at different stages of human development]. Herald of science and educational development 2:18–27 (in Russian)

  70. Seminsky KZ, Bobrov AA (2018) Geoelektricheskii imidzh sbrosovikh zon: tektonofizicheskaya interpretatsia maloglubinnoy elektrotomografii na primere Buguldeysko-Chernorudskogo grabena v Zapadnom Pribaikal’e [Geoelectrical images of normal fault zones: tectonophysical interpretation of the shallow-depth electrical resistivity tomography data on the Buguldeika-Chernorud graben in the Western Baikal region]. Geodyn Tectonophys 9(4):1339–1361. Russian)

  71. Serpilina MS (2016) Fenomen imidzha v nauchnykh issledovaniakh [The phenomenon of image in scientific research]. Educ Sci Without Bord Soc Hum Sci 4:53–56 (in Russian)

  72. Shulga NI (2015) Imidzh i zhiznennye strategii voennosluzhaschikh, uvolennikh v zapas, kak psykhologicheskaya kategoriya, formiruyuschaya imidzh sostavlyayuschimi faktorami [Image and life strategies of servicemen transferred to the reserve as a psychological category generating image by image-contributing factors]. CITISE 2(2):47 (in Russian)

  73. Shutov RV (2015) Imidzh yurodivogo vozhdya: svyataya deviatsiya [God’s fool image: saint deviation]. Tambov university review. Ser Soc Sci 3(3):14–19 (in Russian)

  74. Sidorova EV (2014) Antropologicheskie osnovaniya teorii imidzha [Antropological basis of the theory of image]. Vestnik of P.A. Solovyov Rybinsk State Aviation Technical University 1(28):163–172 (in Russian)

  75. Smirnov IP (2017) Ot otsifrovannoy nauki k otsifrovannomu obschestvu [From digitized science to digitized society]. Educ Sci J 19(10):153–174 (in Russian)

  76. Smirnova AV (2015) Sozdanie imidzha rukovoditelya v stroitelnoy sfere posredstvom formirovaniya verbalnogo komponenta struktury imidzha [Creating the image of a manager in construction companies through verbal component of image]. Construction as a means of shaping environment. Collection of materials of 18th International interuniversity scientific and pracrical conference of Bachelor, Master and Candidate students, and young scientists. pp 694–696 (in Russian)

  77. Sokolina IA (2017) Imidzh-diagnostika mikobakteriozov legkikh [Imaging of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection]. Cons Med 19(3):24–28 (in Russian)

  78. Soldatov AN, Ivanov AV (2016) K voprosu o formirovanii imidzha tsifrovogo klienta v sovremennoy sisteme internet-bankinga [Revisiting building image of a digital client in the contemporary Internet banking]. Aprobatsia 12(51):153–155 (in Russian)

  79. Spanhol FA et al (2016) Breast cancer histopathological image classification using Convolutional Neural Networks. In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 2016, pp 2560–2567.

  80. Srebrodolskaya MA, Fedorova AY (2017) Skvazhinnye skaniruyushchie ustroystva: sravnitelnyi analiz i interpretatsiya imidzhey [Downhole devices: Comparative analysis and interpretation of images]. Natural resources in oil and gas industry. Geonature. The collection of scientific papers of the Students department of the European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers (EAGE), pp 264–267 (in Russian)

  81. Suslov VI (2014) Imidzh Sibiri: Ekonomika s istoricheskim uklonom [Image of Siberia: Economics with historical context]. Reg Econ Sociol 1(81):86–103 (in Russian)

  82. Taha AA, Hanbury A (2015) Metrics for evaluating 3D medical image segmentation: analysis, selection, and tool. BMC Med Imaging 15:29.

  83. Takkel EA, Agapova AY (2014) Psikhologicheskoe soderzhanie imidzhey razlichnikh grupp materey [Psychological content of image of different groups of mothers]. Conference materials. Sociosphera 35:115–120 (in Russian)

  84. Tiggemann M, Zaccardo M (2015) “Exercise to be fit, not skinny”: the effect of fitspiration imagery on women’s body image. Body Image 15:61–67.

  85. Triandis H (1989) The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychol Rev 96(3):506.

  86. Tylka TL, Wood-Barcalow NL (2015a) The body appreciation scale-2: Item refinement and psychometric evaluation. Body Image 12(1):53–67.

  87. Tylka TL, Wood-Barcalow NL (2015b) What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition. Body Image 14:118–129.

  88. Unusova PS et al (2015) Upravlenie investitsionnym imidzhem regiona [Managing the investment image of a region]. Issues of creating and implementing the effective investment policy of a region. Proceedings of the round table. Institute for social and economic research of the Dagestan Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, pp 62–69 (in Russian)

  89. Ustinova OE (2016) Formirovanie imidzha rukovoditelya kak sostavlyaushchego elementa organizatsionnogo imidzha [Creating image of a manager as part of organizational image]. Journal of economy and entrepreneurship] 1-1(66):1059–1065 (in Russian)

  90. Vera J, Trujillo A (2017) Searching most influential variables to brand loyalty measurements: an exploratory study. Contad y Adm 62(2):600–624

  91. Verigo LI, Danilova EN, Vyshedko AM, Demidko NN (2015) Zdoroviy obraz zhizni—osnova formirovaniya imidzha molodogo pokoleniya [A healthy lifestyle as the basis of image formation of the young generation]. Modern problems of science and education 2(2) URL: (in Russian)

  92. Veta M et al (2014) Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 61(5):1400–1411.

  93. Veta M et al (2015) Assessment of algorithms for mitosis detection in breast cancer histopathology images. Med Image Anal 20(1):237–248.

  94. Wang J et al (2015) Quality prediction of asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic 3D images. IEEE Trans Image Process 24(11):3400–3414.

  95. Webb JB, Wood-Barcalow NL, Tylka TL (2015) Assessing positive body image: contemporary approaches and future directions. Body Image 14:130–145.

  96. Wei Hu et al (2015) Deep convolutional neural networks for hyperspectral image classification. J Sens.

  97. Xu Y et al (2014) Weakly supervised histopathology cancer image segmentation and classification. Med Image Anal 18(3):591–604.

  98. Yakusheva SD (2018) Avtoritet i imidzh v professionalnoy nauchnoy deyatelnosti pedagoga [Authority and image in the teacher’s professional activity] Monograph. SibAC, Novosibirsk (in Russian)

  99. Yang J et al (2014) Video compressive sensing using gaussian mixture models. IEEE Trans Image Process 23(11):4863–4878.

  100. Zhang H et al (2014) Hyperspectral image restoration using low-rank matrix recovery. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 52(8):4729–4743.

  101. Zueva OV, Suraykina EA (2016) Ob osobennostyakh obespecheniya kartograficheskoy produktsiey k FIFA-2018™ (na primere goroda samary) [Special characteristics of providing the cartographic products to the FIFA-2018™ (the case of Samara)]. Russia-Kazakhstan: Cross-border cooperation, museum and touristic potential, projects and ways to global events. The Collection of papers of the International research and practice conference, p 56 (in Russian)

Download references


We are really grateful to Jean Kollantai for proofreading this paper, and for her valuable comments. We would also like to thank Veronika Negodina, Daria Rudnitskaya, Marina Kukulyak, and Nguen Tkhi Min Ngok for their assistance in collecting the data for this research.

Author information

Correspondence to Ekaterina V. Polyanskaya.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Spicheva, D.I., Polyanskaya, E.V. Culture codes of scientific concepts in global scientific online discourse. AI & Soc (2020).

Download citation


  • Culture code
  • Scientific online discourse
  • Researchers
  • Image
  • Electronic communications
  • Scientific concept
  • Globalization