This paper proposes an appearance generative mixture model based on key frames for meanshift tracking. Meanshift tracking algorithm tracks an object by maximizing the similarity between the histogram in tracking window and a static histogram acquired at the beginning of tracking. The tracking therefore could fail if the appearance of the object varies substantially. In this paper, we assume the key appearances of the object can be acquired before tracking and the manifold of the object appearance can be approximated by piece-wise linear combination of these key appearances in histogram space. The generative process is described by a Bayesian graphical model. An Online EM algorithm is proposed to estimate the model parameters from the observed histogram in the tracking window and to update the appearance histogram. We applied this approach to track human head motion and to infer the head pose simultaneously in videos. Experiments verify that our online histogram generative model constrained by key appearance histograms alleviates the drifting problem often encountered in tracking with online updating, that the enhanced meanshift algorithm is capable of tracking object of varying appearances more robustly and accurately, and that our tracking algorithm can infer additional information such as the object poses.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Tao, H., Huang, T.: Explanation-based facial motion tracking using a piecewise bezier volume deformation model. In: Procedings of IEEE Computer Vision and Pattem Recognition CVPR’99, vol. 1, pp. 611–617 (1999)
DeCarlo, D., Metaxas, D.: The integration of optical flow and deformable models with applications to human face shape and motion estimation. In: Proceedings of CVPR ’96, pp. 231–238 (1996)
Blake A. and Isard M. (1998). Active Contours. Springer, Heidelberg
Isard M. and Blake A. (1998). Condensation—conditional density propagation for visual tracking. Int. J. Comput. Vis. 29: 5–28
Chen, Y., Rui, Y., Huang, T.S.: Mode-based multi-hypothesis head tracking using parametric contours. In: Proceedings of fifth International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Washington D.C (2002)
Comaniciu, D., Ramesh, V., Meer, P.: Real-time tracking of non-rigid objects using mean shift. In: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’00), vol 2., Hilton Head Island, South Carolina 142–149 (2000)
Birchfield, S.: Elliptical head tracking using intensity gradients and color histograms. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 232–237 (1998)
Morency, L.P., Rahimi, A., Checka, N., Darrell, T.: Fast stereo-based head tracking for interactive environment. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (2002)
Black M. and Jepson A. (1998). Eigentracking: robust matching and tracking of articulated objects using a view-based representation. Int. J. Comput. Vis. 26: 63–84
Lee K.C., Ho J., Yang M.H. and Kriegman D. (2005). Visual tracking and recognition using probabilistic appearance manifolds. Comput. Vis. Image Underst. (CVIU) 99: 303–331
Ross, D., Lim, J., Yang, M.H.: Probabilistic visual tracking with incremental subspace update. In: ECCV, vol. 2, pp. 470–482 (2004)
Ho, J., Lee, K.C., Yang, M.H., Kriegman, D.: Visual tracking using learned linear subspace. In: IEEE CVPR (2004)
Lee, K.C., Kriegman, D.: Online learning of probabilistic appearance manifolds for video-based recognition and tracking. In: IEEE Conference On Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2005)
Nguyen, H., Worring, M., van den Boomgaard, R.: Occlusion robust adaptive template tracking. In: ICCV, vol. 1, 678–683 (2001)
Jepson A.D., Fleet D.J. and El-Maraghi T.F. (2003). Robust on-line appearance models for visual tracking. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25: 1296–1311
Collins, R.: Mean-shift blob tracking through scale space. In: Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’03), IEEE (2003)
Zivkovic, Z., Krose, B.: An em-like algorithm for color-histogram-based object tracking. In: IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 798–803 (2004)
Porikli, F.: Human body tracking by adaptive background models and mean-shift analysis. In: IEEE International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance (2003)
Cheng Y. (1995). Mean shift, mode seeking and clustering. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17: 790–799
Fukunaga K. and Hostetler L. (1975). The estimation of the gradient of a density function, with applications in pattern recognition. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 21: 32–40
Birchfield, S.: http://www.ces.clemson.edu/ stb/research/headtracker/ (1998)
About this article
Cite this article
Tu, J., Tao, H. & Huang, T. Online updating appearance generative mixture model for meanshift tracking. Machine Vision and Applications 20, 163–173 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00138-007-0115-x
- Visual Tracking
- Object Appearance
- Meanshift Algorithm
- Rear View
- Static Histogram