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Muskelphysiologie und Auswirkung der Operationsmethoden bei infantiler Zerebralparese

Muscle physiology and the effect of muscle-tendon surgery in cerebral palsy

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Bei neurologischen Störungen, welche den Muskel nicht primär betreffen (wie bei Muskeldystrophien), reagiert der Muskel physiologisch und passt sich an veränderte Anforderungen an. Veränderungen des Muskel-Sehnen-Apparates müssen daher als größtenteils sekundär angesehen werden. Wechselnde Belastungen eines Muskels, wie beim Sport, stimulieren den Aufbau von Muskelfasern, während Dauerzug zu Bindegewebsvermehrung (Fibrose) führt.

Zur Planung einer operativen Weichteilkorrektur und zum Verständnis des postoperativen Ergebnisses ist es wesentlich, den Längenbereich, über den der Muskel Kraft produziert, im Verhältnis zum Bewegungsumfang des Gelenks zu betrachten. Eine optimale Einstellung der Muskellänge auf den Bewegungsumfang kann die Muskelkraft verbessern, während übermäßige Verlängerungen die Kraft reduzieren. Letzteres kann bei störender spastischer Muskelaktivität durchaus der gewünschte Effekt einer operativen Behandlung sein. Umgekehrt kann eine Sehnenverkürzung sinnvoll sein, um eine Überlänge des Muskel-Sehnen-Apparates zu korrigieren und die Muskelkraft zu verbessern.

Intramuskuläre Verlängerungen, aponeurotisch oder als intramuskuläre Tenotomie, wirken erst bei postoperativer Dehnungsbehandlung, während Sehnenverlängerungen sofort den gewünschten Längengewinn bringen. Dafür ist die Gefahr von übermäßigen Verlängerungen mit späterem Kraftverlust bei rein sehnigen Operationstechniken größer.


The muscle reacts physiologically in neuromuscular disorders which do not affect muscle tissue directly (such as muscular dystrophies), and adapts to altered demands. For this reason, alterations in the muscle-tendon apparatus are grossly secondary. Changing load stimulates an increase in muscle fibres, whereas continuous pull results in an increase in collagen fibres (fibrosis).

The length range in which a muscle produces force must be considered with respect to the range of motion of the joint in order to plan soft tissue corrections and to understand the postoperative result. An optimal correction of muscle length can increase muscle force whereas overlengthening will reduce it. The latter is desired in cases where spastic muscle force needs to be reduced. In contrast shortening the muscle-tendon apparatus may be indicated in order to correct overlength and to increase muscle force.

The effect of intramuscular lengthening procedures, performed as an aponeurotomy or an intramuscular tenotomy, depends on the stretching program after surgery. Extramuscular tendon lengthening, on the other hand, results in an immediate length gain. The danger of overlengthening and consecutive muscle weakening, however, is greater with the tendinous procedures.

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Correspondence to Priv.-Doz. Dr. R. Brunner.

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Brunner, R. Muskelphysiologie und Auswirkung der Operationsmethoden bei infantiler Zerebralparese. Orthopäde 33, 1096–1102 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00132-004-0680-x

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  • Muskellänge
  • Muskelkraft
  • Bewegungsumfang
  • Spastizität
  • Zerebralparese


  • Muscle length
  • Muscle force
  • Range of motion of joint
  • Spasticity
  • Cerebral palsy