Fish were separately exposed to 1/2 LC50/96 h values of bulk-Zn and nano-Zn for 7, 14, and 28 days. The induction of micronuclei (MN) and other eight nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes showed marked time and size dependence. The frequencies of all nuclear anomalies were progressively elevated (p < 0.05) with increasing the time of exposure to both bulk-Zn and nano-Zn. Throughout the study periods, fish exposed to nano-Zn showed the maximum elevation in all studied nuclear anomalies. Based on the fragmented DNA values, both Zn forms induced tissue-specific DNA damage as following gills > liver > muscles. Moreover, nano-Zn exposed groups revealed a maximum percentage of DNA damage among all studied groups, especially after 14 days. The percentage of DNA damage was decreased in all tissues on the 28th day, which reflected the presence of an effective repair mechanism. Finally, nano-Zn exhibited more genotoxic effects than that of its bulk counterparts.
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The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through Research Group Project under grant no. (R.G.P.1–56 − 40), and to the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt for supporting the current work.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This manuscript complies with the ethical rules applicable for this journal. All procedures performed in the present study involving fish were approved (approval no. CUIF4919) and were in accordance with the ethical standards of Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at which the studies were conducted.
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Abdel-Khalek, A.A., Morsy, K. & Shati, A. Comparative Assessment of Genotoxic Impacts Induced by Zinc Bulk- and Nano-Particles in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 104, 366–372 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02799-9
- Zinc nanoparticles
- Micronucleus test
- DNA damage
- Oreochromis niloticus