Fate of Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) in Typical Greenhouse Soils of Different Cultivation Ages

  • Xianxu Li
  • Wenjun Liu
  • Cui Zhang
  • Peipei SongEmail author
  • Jun WangEmail author


An ultrasonic-assisted extraction methodology coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analytical technique was used to determine concentration of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in typical greenhouse soil. The results showed that the developed method has a reliable recovery rate (80.78%–112.89%) and a low detection limit (10− 4 mg/kg) which met the requirements of residue determination. The analysis of 32 soil samples revealed that except for dimethyl phthalate, the concentration of other five PAEs was detected and followed the sequence di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate > dibutyl phthalate > di-n-octyl phthalate > butylbenz phthalate > diethyl phthalate. Σ6PAEs concentrations ranged from 136.91 to 1121.74 µg/kg (mean 319.59 µg/kg). PAEs was closely correlated with soil pH and organic matter, but not with cultivation ages which indicates that the increase of cultivation age is not the main reason for the change of soil PAEs concentration.


Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) Greenhouse soil Detection method Cultivation age Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) 



This study was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC1800605), the National Key Research Development Plans of Special Project for Site Soils (No. 2018YFC1801001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41807125), the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Nos. ZR2018BD003, ZR2017MD023), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2018M632703), and the Special Funds of Taishan Scholar of Shandong Province, China.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 152.4 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural EnvironmentShandong Agricultural UniversityTai′anChina

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