Controlled Release of Spirotetramat Using Starch–Chitosan–Alginate-Encapsulation
This study was intended to develop an environment-friendly controlled release system for spirotetramat in an alginate matrix. Four formulations, starch–chitosan–calcium alginate (SCCA), starch–calcium alginate (SCA), chitosan–calcium alginate (CCA), and calcium alginate (CA) complex gel beads, were prepared by the extrusion–exogenous gelation method. The properties of the formulations were studied. The results showed that the release behaviors of the formulations in water could be well described by the logistic model, and the release occurred through Fickian diffusion. Among the four formulations, SCCA showed the highest entrapment efficiency, drug loading and the slowest release rate. Degradation studies revealed that the SCCA formulation exhibited an obvious slower degradation rate of spirotetramat in soils than the commercially available formulation. The estimated half-life of the SCCA formulation was 2.31, 3.25, and 4.51 days in waterloggogenic paddy soil, purplish soil, and montmorillonite, respectively, when the soils were moistened to 60% of its dry weight. This study provided a possible approach to prolong the duration of spirotetramat and to reduce environmental contamination.
KeywordsSpirotetramat Controlled release Alginate–chitosan–starch-gel Degradation in soil
This work was financially supported by the Hainan Provincial Natural Science Foundation (218QN186), the Hainan Key R & D plan (ZDYF2018062), Hainan University [KYQD(ZR)1963, KYQD(ZR)1951].
- Brück E, Elbert A, Fischer R, Krueger S, Kühnhold J, Klueken A, Nauen R, Niebes JF, Reckmann U, Schnorbach HJ, Steffens R, Van Waetermeulen X (2009) Movento, an innovative ambimobile insecticide for sucking insect pest control in agriculture: biological profile and field performance. Crop Protect 28:838–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cantoni A, De Maeyer L, Izquierdo Casas J, Niebes JF, Peeters D, Roffeni S, SilvaJ Villalobos A (2008) Development of Movento® on key pests and crops in European countries. Bayer Crop Sci J 61:349–376Google Scholar
- Li W (2011) Study on preparation procedure for emamectin benzoate microcapsule and property characterization. Shandong Agricultural University, TaianGoogle Scholar
- Łozowicka B, Mojsak P, Kaczyński P, Konecki R, Borusiewicz A (2017) The fate of spirotetramat and dissipation metabolites in Apiaceae and Brassicaceae leaf-root and soil system under greenhouse conditions estimated by modified QuEChERS/LC–MS/MS. Sci Total Environ 603–604:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mastan J, Srinivas BN, Rao TN, Rao NK (2016) Dissipation kinetics of spirotetramat and its metabolite in four different soils. ACAIJ 16(10):433–440Google Scholar
- Nauen R, Reckmann U, Thomzik J, Thielert W (2008) Biological profile of spirotetramat (Movento)—a new two way systemic (amimobile) insecticide against sucking pests species. Bayer Crop Sci J 61:245–278Google Scholar
- PPDB (Pesticide Properties DataBase) (2014) The footprint pesticide properties database. University of Hertfordshire, UK. Accessed 15 Sept 2019 http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/footprint/es/
- Shahzad S, Shahzadi L, Mahmood N, Siddiqi SA, Rauf A, Manzoor F, Chaudhry AA, Ur Rehman I, Yar M (2016) A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng C 66:156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shazly GA (2017) Ciprofloxacin controlled-solid lipid nanoparticles: characterization, in vitro release, and antibacterial activity assessment. Biomed Res Int 4:1–9Google Scholar
- Sopeña F, Maqueda C, Morillo E (2009) Controlled release formulations of herbicides based on micro-encapsulation. Cienc Invest Agr 35(1):27–42Google Scholar