Uptake Prediction of Ten Heavy Metals by Eruca sativa Mill. Cultivated in Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge
This study was carried out to develop mathematical regression equations for predicting the uptake of ten heavy metals (HMs) (cadmium, Cd; cobalt, Co; chromium, Cr; copper, Cu; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; molybdenum, Mo; nickel, Ni; lead, Pb; zinc, Zn) by a vegetable species (Eruca sativa Mill.) in the Abha region (Saudi Arabia) based on the concentration of these HMs in soils amended with sewage sludge, organic matter (OM) content and soil pH. The resultant regression equations indicated that the three soil factors were significant predictors for the uptake of the ten HMs in the plant tissues. By applying a t test, we found that there are no significant differences between the actual and predicted values of the ten HMs in the E. sativa roots and leaves (P > 0.05), which reflects the goodness of fit of these equations for predicting the uptake of these HMs. Such types of equations may be helpful for evaluating the risk of cultivation of E. sativa plants in soils amended with sewage sludge.
KeywordsBioconcentration factor Leafy vegetables Regression models Risk assessment Sewage sludge Alkalinity and organic matter of soil
This study was financially supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University (Grant Number R.G.P. 1/14/40).
- Allen SE (1989) Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Blackwell Scientific Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Aydinalp C, Marinova S (2003) Distribution and forms of heavy metals in some agricultural soils. Pol J Environ Stud 12:629–633Google Scholar
- Boulos L (1999) Flora of Egypt. Azollaceae-Oxalidaceae, vol 1. Al- Hadara Publishing, CairoGoogle Scholar
- Eid EM, Hussain AA, Taher MA, Galal TM, Shaltout KH, Sewelam N (2019b) Sewage sludge application enhances the growth of Corchorus olitorius plants and provides a sustainable practice for nutrient recirculation in agricultural soils. J Soil Sci Plant Nut. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-019-00113-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Elawa OE (2015) Impact assessment of industrial pollution on some economic plants south of Cairo Province, Egypt. M.Sc Thesis, Helwan University, HelwanGoogle Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias A (2011) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton (Fl)Google Scholar
- Padulosi S, Pignone D (1997) Rocket: a Mediterranean crop for the world. Report of a Workshop, Legnaro (Padova)Google Scholar
- Ramadan MAE, Al-Ashkar EA (2007) The effect of different fertilizers on the heavy metals in soil and tomato plant. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 1:300–306Google Scholar
- SPSS (2006) SPSS base 15.0 user’s guide. SPSS Inc., ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Usman A, Kuzyakov Y, Stahr K (2008) Sorption, desorption, and immobilization of heavy metals by artificial soil. University of Hohenhiem, StuttgartGoogle Scholar