Uptake Prediction of Ten Heavy Metals by Eruca sativa Mill. Cultivated in Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge

  • Ebrahem M. EidEmail author
  • Kamal H. Shaltout
  • Samy M. Abdallah
  • Tarek M. Galal
  • Ahmed F. El-Bebany
  • Nasser A. Sewelam


This study was carried out to develop mathematical regression equations for predicting the uptake of ten heavy metals (HMs) (cadmium, Cd; cobalt, Co; chromium, Cr; copper, Cu; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; molybdenum, Mo; nickel, Ni; lead, Pb; zinc, Zn) by a vegetable species (Eruca sativa Mill.) in the Abha region (Saudi Arabia) based on the concentration of these HMs in soils amended with sewage sludge, organic matter (OM) content and soil pH. The resultant regression equations indicated that the three soil factors were significant predictors for the uptake of the ten HMs in the plant tissues. By applying a t test, we found that there are no significant differences between the actual and predicted values of the ten HMs in the E. sativa roots and leaves (P > 0.05), which reflects the goodness of fit of these equations for predicting the uptake of these HMs. Such types of equations may be helpful for evaluating the risk of cultivation of E. sativa plants in soils amended with sewage sludge.


Bioconcentration factor Leafy vegetables Regression models Risk assessment Sewage sludge Alkalinity and organic matter of soil 



This study was financially supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University (Grant Number R.G.P. 1/14/40).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology Department, College of ScienceKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceKafr El-Sheikh UniversityKafr El-SheikhEgypt
  3. 3.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  4. 4.Prince Sultan Bin Abdul-Aziz Center for Environment and Tourism Research and StudiesKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Soils and water, Faculty of AgricultureAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  6. 6.Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of ScienceHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt
  7. 7.Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of AgricultureAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

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