Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Manure, Soil, Wastewater, Groundwater from Livestock and Poultry Farms in Xuzhou, China

  • Deming Gu
  • Qiyan FengEmail author
  • Changsheng Guo
  • Song Hou
  • Jiapei Lv
  • Yan Zhang
  • Sheng YuanEmail author
  • Xin ZhaoEmail author


Antibiotics in manure, soil, wastewater, and groundwater samples from the livestock and poultry farms in Xuzhou City were investigated in the present study. The concentrations of antibiotics in all matrices varied greatly among farms. Total concentrations of fluoroquinolones and macrolides were much higher than those of sulfonamides in manures and soil samples. Total concentrations of antibiotics in wastewater of livestock farms were higher than those of poultry farm. Josamycin (JM) and tilmicosin (TIL) accounted for more than 74% of the nine macrolides in all groundwater samples. Sulfamethizole (SMT), fleroxacin (FLE), cinoxacin (CIN) and JM were the main antibiotics detected in manure and soil samples, while sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), sulfameter (SME), SMT, FLE, JM and TIL accounted for a large proportion of antibiotics in surface and groundwater. The risk assessment of target antibiotics revealed that JM in wastewater showed relatively high RQs for aquatic organisms.


Antibiotics Environmental matrices Livestock and poultry farms Risk assessment 



This work was funded by the Postgraduate Research and Innovation Project of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. KYLX16_0569) and the Research on Environmental Safety Monitoring, Assessment and Early Warning Technology of Centralized Drinking Water Source (Grant No. 2018002).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment Science and Spatial InformaticsChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Jiangsu Agri-Animal Husbandry Vocational CollegeTaizhouChina

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