Enhanced Phytoextraction for Co-contaminated Soil with Cd and Pb by Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

  • Yaping Zhang
  • Fangzhou Li
  • Weiwei Xu
  • Jinghua Ren
  • Sihui Chen
  • Kai ShenEmail author
  • Zhen Long


A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three additives – citric acid (CA), polyaspartic acid (PASP), and FeCl3 – on the phytoextraction efficiency of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by ryegrass (Lolium perenneL.) from artificially contaminated soils with different heavy metal concentrations. The results showed that as the concentration of pollutants increased, the TI (tolerance index) and BCF (bio-concentration factor) of ryegrass gradually increased only when FeCl3 was applied. FeCl3 also exhibited the most significant biomass enhancement and heavy metal accumulation of ryegrass, as well as the highest phytoextraction efficiency in heavily-polluted soils. The overall orders of the optimal phytoextraction efficiency for the three additives in terms of their MER (metal extraction ratio) were: FeCl3 > PASP > CA. Therefore, FeCl3 can be used to improve the Cd and Pb phytoextraction efficiency of ryegrass in heavily-polluted soils.


Phytoextraction Additives Ryegrass Cadmium Lead 



This work was financially supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFD0800304) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20171075).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and EnvironmentSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Geological Survey Institute of Jiangsu ProvinceNanjingChina

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