Polyhalogenated Carbazoles in Surface Sediment from Sanmen Bay, East China Sea: Spatial Distribution and Congener Profile

  • Yong Qiu
  • Kunyan Liu
  • Shanshan Zhou
  • Da Chen
  • Han Qu
  • Xiaodong Wang
  • Yongxia HuEmail author
  • Yan WangEmail author


Polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCZs) have recently emerged as a group of halogenated pollutants with broad occurrences and bioaccumulation potential in aquatic systems. However, investigations on their occurrences in coastal waters remain very limited. In the present study we investigated PHCZs in surface sediment collected from 29 sites in Sanmen Bay, East China Sea. The results demonstrated a universal presence of PHCZs in sediment, with concentrations of ∑PHCZs (including all congeners) ranging from 7.7 to 17.5 ng/g dry weight (median: 11.3 ng/g dw). The PHCZ congener composition profile revealed a dominance of 3,6-dichlorocarbazole (36-CCZ) with comparable concentration with that of carbazole. Given that PHCZs are widely distributed in Sanmen Bay sediment and their concentrations rivaled other well-known persistent organic pollutants in the same area, this group of halogenated pollutants merits additional investigations of their potential risks to the studied aquatic system, as well as other important watersheds.


Polyhalogenated carbazoles Spatial distribution Congener profile Sanmen Bay Sediment 



This present study was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC1404300) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41676144). We also thank the families participating in this project.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Harmful Algae and Marine BiologyJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.College of EnvironmentZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  3. 3.School of Environment and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and HealthJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina

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