Silver Nanoparticles Induced Cell Apoptosis, Membrane Damage of Azotobacter vinelandii and Nitrosomonas europaea via Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is widely used as an antibacterial agent, but the specific antibacterial mechanism is still conflicting. This study aimed to investigate the size dependent inhibition of AgNPs and the relationship between inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Azotobactervinelandii and Nitrosomonaseuropaea were exposed to AgNPs with different particles size (10 nm and 50 nm). The ROS production was measured and the results showed that the generation of ROS related to the particle size and concentrations of AgNPs. At 10 mg/L of 10 nm Ag particles, the apoptosis rate of A. vinelandii and N. europaea were 20.23% and 1.87% respectively. Additionally, the necrosis rate of A. vinelandii and N. europaea reached to 15.20% and 42.20% respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy images also indicated that AgNPs caused severely bacterial cell membrane damage. Together these data suggested that the toxicity of AgNPs depends on its particle size and overproduction of ROS.
KeywordsSilver nanoparticles Reactive oxygen species Azotobactervinelandii Nitrosomonaseuropaea Apoptosis
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant No. 41430752].
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Barcinska E, Wierzbicka J, Zauszkiewicz-Pawlak A, Jacewicz D, Dabrowska A, Inkielewicz-Stepniak I (2018) Role of oxidative and nitro-oxidative damage in silver nanoparticles cytotoxic effect against human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018:8251961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang Y, Wang J, Xiu Z, Alvarez PJ (2013) Impacts of silver nanoparticles on cellular and transcriptional activity of nitrogen-cycling bacteria. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:1488–1494Google Scholar