Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Bosnia and Herzegovina Using Epiphytic Lichen Hypogymnia physodes

  • Emina Ramić
  • Jasna HuremovićEmail author
  • Tidža Muhić-Šarac
  • Samir Đug
  • Sabina Žero
  • Almir Olovčić


The aim of the study was to assess heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) air pollution in Bosnia and Herzegovina by using a lichen, Hypogymnia physodes. Metal content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and was between very high naturality or alteration to middle naturality or alteration. Strong correlations between Cr and Ni confirmed mainly anthropogenic sources. The scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, V, Co, As, Sn, Sb, Hg and Bi were performed on the lichen surface and hyphae of the transplanted samples. Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in lichen indicates the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due to anthropogenic and natural sources such as soil.


Biomonitoring Air pollution Hypogymnia physodes Heavy metals FAAS SEM/EDS 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of SarajevoSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina
  2. 2.Department of Natural Sciences in Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of SarajevoSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of SarajevoSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina

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