The Kinetics of Aging and Reducing Processes of Cr(VI) in Two Soils

  • Yang Yang
  • Yemian Peng
  • Zesheng Yang
  • Pengfei Cheng
  • Fangbai Li
  • Meng Wang
  • Tongxu LiuEmail author


To investigate the aging process and reduction of Cr(VI) in two soils. The adsorption behavior of the soils demonstrated that the paddy soil had higher adsorption capacity for Cr(VI), but the capacity was lower for Cr(III), which contrasted the results for fluro-aquic soil. The mobilizable Cr was assessed using EDTA extraction. The results suggested that the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and the aging process occurred simultaneously. A simplified kinetic model was established and the rate constants of the reduction and aging processes were obtained. The aging process and reduction of Cr(VI) were faster in the paddy soil, due to a higher adsorption capacity and stronger reducing ability, as indicated by the organic matter and amorphous Fe oxides. The Cr(III) aging was faster in the fluro-aquic soil due to the low solubility of Cr(III) at a high pH. The modeling study provides a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of Cr mobility in a complicated soil system.


Chromium adsorption Chromium aging and reduction kinetics Paddy soil Fluro-aquic soil 



This work was supported by the project of “Research on Migration/Transformation and Safety Threshold of Heavy Metals in Farmland Systems” (2016YFD0800404), the National Key Research and Development Program of China. Local Innovative and Research Teams Project of Guangdong Pearl River Talents Program (2017BT01Z176); the Guangdong Special Support Plan for High-Level Talents (T.X.L.); and the SPICC (Scientific Platform and Innovation Capability Construction) program of GDAS. Science and technology innovation project in Foshan City (2016AG101561).


  1. Ajouyed O, Hurel C, Ammari M, Ben AL, Marmier N (2010) Sorption of Cr(VI) onto natural iron and aluminum (oxy)hydroxides: effects of pH, ionic strength and initial concentration. J Hazard Mater 174:616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akram M, Bhatti HN, Iqbal M, Noreen S, Sadaf S (2016) Biocomposite efficiency for Cr(VI) adsorption: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamics studies. J Environ Chem Eng 5:400–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoniadis V, Polyzois T, Golia EE, Petropoulos SA (2017) Hexavalent chromium availability and phytoremediation potential of Cichorium spinosum as affect by manure, zeolite and soil ageing. Chemosphere 171:729–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banks MK, Schwab AP, Henderson C (2006) Leaching and reduction of chromium in soil as affected by soil organic content and plants. Chemosphere 62:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choppala G, Bolan N, Lamb D, Kunhikrishnan A (2013a) Comparative sorption and mobility of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species in a range of soils: implications to bioavailability. Water Air Soil Pollution 224:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choppala G, Bolan N, Seshadri B (2013b) Chemodynamics of chromium reduction in soils: implications to bioavailability. J Hazard Mater 261:718–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choppala G, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Jin HP, Bush R, Bolan N (2016) Comparative sorption of chromium species as influenced by pH, surface charge and organic matter content in contaminated soils. J Geochem Explor 184:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elzinga EJ, Reeder RJ (2002) X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Cu2+ and Zn2+ adsorption complexes at the calcite surface: implications for site-specific metal incorporation preferences during calcite crystal growth. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:3943–3954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ewecharoen A, Thiravetyan P, Nakbanpote W (2008) Comparison of nickel adsorption from electroplating rinse water by coir pith and modified coir pith. Chem Eng J 137:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hori M, Shozugawa K, Matsuo M (2015) Reduction process of Cr(VI) by Fe(II) and humic acid analyzed using high time resolution XAFS analysis. J Hazard Mater 285:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. International Organization for Standardization (2012) Soil quality—determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora-Part 1: method for the measurement of inhibition of root growth. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  12. Jardine PM, Fendorf SE, Mayes MA, Larsen IL, Brooks SC, Bailey WB (1999) Fate and transport of hexavalent chromium in undisturbed heterogeneous soil. Environ Sci Technol 33:2939–2944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang J, Xu R, Wang Y, Zhao A (2008) The mechanism of chromate sorption by three variable charge soils. Chemosphere 71:1469–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson KA, Simpson ZB, Blom T (2009) Global kinetic explorer: a new computer program for dynamic simulation and fitting of kinetic data. Anal Biochem 387:20–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kanwal F, Rehman R, Mahmud T, Anwar J, Ilyas R (2012) Isothermal and thermodynamical modeling of chromium(III) adsorption by composites of polyyaniline with rice husk and saw dust. J Chil Chem Soc 57(1):1058–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan AA, Muthukrishnan M, Guha BK (2010) Sorption and transport modeling of hexavalent chromium on soil media. J Hazard Mater 174:444–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khaodhiar S, Azizian MF, Osathaphan K, Nelson PO (2000) Copper, chromium, and arsenic adsorption and equilibrium modelling in an iron-oxide-coated sand, background electrolyte system. Water Air Soil Pollut 119:105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kierczak J, Pędziwiatr A, Waroszewski J, Modelska M (2016) Mobility of Ni, Cr and Co in serpentine soils derived on various ultrabasic bedrocks under temperate climate. Geoderma 268:78–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kotaś J, Stasicka Z (2000) Chromium occurrence in the environment and methods of its speciation. Environ Pollut 107:263–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee DY, Shih YN, Zheng HC, Chen CP, Juang KW, Lee JF, Tsui L (2006) Using the selective ion exchange resin extraction and XANES methods to evaluate the effect of compost amendments on soil chromium(VI) phytotoxicity. Plant Soil 281:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li X, Zhou Q, Sun X, Ren W (2016) Effects of cadmium on uptake and translocation of nutrient elements in different welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars. Food Chem 194:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liang S, Guan DX, Ren JH, Zhang M, Luo J, Ma LQ (2014) Effect of aging on arsenic and lead fractionation and availability in soils: coupling sequential extractions with diffusive gradients in thin-films technique. J Hazard Mater 273:272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lock K, Janssen CR (2003) Influence of aging on metal availability in soils. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lu RK (2000) Soil and agro-chemistry analysis. Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Ma Y, Enzo L, Nolan AL, Mclaughlin MJ (2006a) Short-term natural attenuation of copper in soils: effects of time, temperature, and soil characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:652–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ma Y, Lombi E, Oliver IW, Nolan AL, Mclaughlin MJ (2006b) Long-term aging of copper added to soils. Environ Sci Technol 40:6310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (1995) Environmental quality standard for soils (GB15618–1995). Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Pérez C, Antelo J, Fiol S, Arce F (2015) Modeling oxyanion adsorption on ferralic soil, part 2: Chromate, selenate, molybdate, and arsenate adsorption. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:2217–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Quevauviller P (1998) Operationally defined extraction procedures for soil and sediment analysis I. Standardization. Trends Anal Chem 17(5):289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reijonen I, Hartikainen H (2016) Oxidation mechanisms and chemical bioavailability of chromium in agricultural soil—pH as the master variable. Appl Geochem 74:84–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stewart MA, Jardine PM, Brandt CC, Barnett MO, Fendorf SE, Mckay LD, Mehlhorn TL, Paul k (2003) Effects of contaminant concentration, aging, and soil properties on the bioaccessibility of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in soil. J Soil Contam 12:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tokunaga TK, Firestone J, Hazen MK, Olson TC, Herman KR, Sutton DJ, Lanzirotti SR (2003) In situ reduction of chromium(VI) in heavily contaminated soils through organic carbon amendment. J Environ Qual 32:1641–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang Y, Cheng P, Li F, Liu T, Cheng K, Yang J, Lu Y (2018) Variable charges of a red soil from different depths: acid-base buffer capacity and surface complexation model. Appl Clay Sci 159:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xiao W, Zhang Y, Li T, Chen B, Wang H, He Z, Yang X (2012) Reduction kinetics of hexavalent chromium in soils and its correlation with soil properties. J Environ Qual 41:1452–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zayed AM, Terry N (2003) Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation. Plant Soil 249:139–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang X, Tong J, Hu BX, Wei W (2017) Adsorption and desorption for dynamics transport of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in soil column. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25:459–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhao Z, Jin R, Fang D, Wang H, Dong Y, Xu R, Jiang J (2018) Paddy cultivation significantly alters the forms and contents of Fe oxides in an Oxisol and increases phosphate mobility. Soil Tillage Res 184:176–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yang Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yemian Peng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zesheng Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pengfei Cheng
    • 2
    • 4
  • Fangbai Li
    • 2
  • Meng Wang
    • 5
  • Tongxu Liu
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental Science & TechnologyGuangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-Environmental Pollution Control and ManagementGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Institute of Organic Contaminant Control and Soil RemediationNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Environmental Monitoring StationZiboPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations