Effect of Nano-Carbon Black Surface Modification on Toxicity to Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) Using Filter Paper Contact and Avoidance Test

  • Kun Xu
  • Ya-xin Liu
  • Xiao-feng Wang
  • Jie-min ChengEmail author


Engineered nanomaterials (NMs) may enter the soil through various channels and pose potential harm to soil animals, especially those proactively applied for soil heavy metal remediation. Effects of nano-carbon black (CB) and surface modified carbon black (MCB) on catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in earthworms exposed on filter paper for 48 h were tested. Avoidance test was used to determine hazard of soil treated with 0.015% and 1.5% CB and MCB. Surface properties of NMs were also characterized. MCB has a significant effect on CAT activity at 70 and 1000 mg/L (1.1 and 15.7 µg/cm2), but has no impact on MDA content in earthworm. Strongly avoidance behavior of worms was also found in soil added 1.5% MCB. Negative charges and oxygen functional groups increased for MCB and its adverse effect on earthworm was higher than CB. The application of MCB in soil remediation warrants more attention.


Toxicity Nano-carbon black Surface charge and functional group Earthworm Soil immobilization agents 



The authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Fund Committee, China (Nos. 41877119 and 41471255) and the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. ZR2016YL002).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 5532 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kun Xu
    • 1
  • Ya-xin Liu
    • 1
  • Xiao-feng Wang
    • 1
  • Jie-min Cheng
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Geography and EnvironmentShandong Normal UniversityJinanChina

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