Occurence and Prioritization of Pharmaceutical Active Compounds in Domestic/Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants
In this study, pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) were analyzed in the influent and effluent of a domestic wastewater treatment plant in Turkey and a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Germany and the toxicity of these wastewaters were estimated using a toxic unit (TU) approach. A total of 21 and 32 PhACs were detected in the domestic wastewater and the municipal wastewater, respectively. The TUs estimated for PhACs in municipal wastewater were higher than the TUs estimated for PhACs present in domestic wastewater. The levels of the anti-anxiety drug, oxazepam were estimated to be in the high risk category (HQ > 10) in both wastewaters. In bench-scale tests with ozonation, the removals of four PhACs in the municipal wastewater were investigated. At a dose of 2 mg/L ozone, 97%–98% of diclofenac and carbamazepine were removed. The lowest removal rate at 71% was observed for metoprolol.
KeywordsPhAC Domestic/municipal wastewater Toxicological effects HQ
This work was supported by Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit of Istanbul University. Project Number: 31495, 31527, and 41771.
- APHA/ AWWA/WEF (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- EC (2003) Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment in support of Commission Directive 93/67/EEC on Risk Assessment for new notified substances, Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 on Risk Assessment for existing substances, and Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. Part II: Environmental Risk Assessment). Off. Off. Publ. of EC, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
- EU (2015) Decision 495/2015/EU of 20 March 2015 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off J Eur Union 78:40–42Google Scholar
- Majewsky M, Farlin J, Bayerle M, Galle T (2013) A case-study on the accuracy of mass balances for xenobiotics in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. Environ Sci: Process Impacts 15:730–738Google Scholar
- Seidel U, Ante S, Boergers A et al (2013) Abschlussbericht zum Forschungsvorhaben Analyse der Eliminationsmöglichkeiten von Arzneimitteln in den Krankenhäusern in NRW (TP 3) gerichtet an das Ministerium für Klimaschutz, Umwelt, Landwirtschaft, Natur- und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (MKULNV), AZ IV-7-042 600 001C, Vergabenummer 08/0581Google Scholar
- Tuerk J, Dazio M, Dinkel F et al (2013) Abschlussbericht zum Forschungsvorhaben Volkswirtschaftlicher Nutzen der Ertüchtigung kommunaler Kläranlagen zur Elimination von organischen Spurenstoffen, Arzneimitteln, Industriechemikalien, bakteriologisch relevanten Keimen und Viren (TP 9) gerichtet an das Ministerium für Klimaschutz, Umwelt, Landwirtschaft, Natur und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (MKULNV), AZ IV-7-042 600 001I, Vergabenummer 08/0581Google Scholar