Malachite Green Induced Ultrastructural Corneal Lesions in Cyprinus carpio and Its Amelioration Using Emblica officinalis
Malachite green, a multi-purpose dye induces cyto-toxicity upon its entry and bioaccumulation in tissues. A semi-static chronic (60 days) bioassay was conducted by exposing Cyprinus carpio to sublethal concentration of the dye and Emblica officinalis in four experimental groups viz control, malachite green, E. officinalis, and malachite green + E. officinalis. Effect of dye on the cornea was investigated considering ultra-structural alterations owing to its direct contact to the pollutant in the aquatic medium. SEM studies on corneal epithelium revealed broken continuity of pavement cells, shrunk microplicae, increased intra-microplicae distance, globularization and epithelial uplifting, thereby affecting the integrity of corneal surface and tear film adherence. Whereas dietary supplementation with the plant extract served to restore cytoarchitecture with appearance of large number of regenerating cells. Both lesions and restoration were found to be duration dependent. Thus, E. officinalis can be considered as an effective ameliorant against malachite green induced toxicity.
KeywordsMalachite green Toxicity Cyprinus carpio Cornea Ultrastructure Emblica officinalis
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Institutional Animal Ethical Committee
Authors are thankful to the Chairperson, Department of Zoology for providing research facilities; Prof. Rajeev Patnaik, Department of Geology, Panjab University, Chandigarh for SEM facility; AIIMS, New Delhi for sample processing and ‘Sultan Singh Fish Seed Farm’, Karnal, Haryana for providing experimental fish. University Grant Commission—Basic Scientific Research Fellowship for meritorious students (Grant No. F.4-1/2006(BSR)/7-150/2007(BSR) dated 22-10-2013), New Delhi for funding the research project are duly acknowledged.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Requisite animal ethical clearance from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee, Panjab University, Chandigarh (Ref no. PU/IAEC/S/14/149) has been taken, and fish were handled, maintained and sacrificed following IAEC guidelines.
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