Advertisement

Malachite Green Induced Ultrastructural Corneal Lesions in Cyprinus carpio and Its Amelioration Using Emblica officinalis

  • Rajinder JindalEmail author
  • Reshma Sinha
Article

Abstract

Malachite green, a multi-purpose dye induces cyto-toxicity upon its entry and bioaccumulation in tissues. A semi-static chronic (60 days) bioassay was conducted by exposing Cyprinus carpio to sublethal concentration of the dye and Emblica officinalis in four experimental groups viz control, malachite green, E. officinalis, and malachite green + E. officinalis. Effect of dye on the cornea was investigated considering ultra-structural alterations owing to its direct contact to the pollutant in the aquatic medium. SEM studies on corneal epithelium revealed broken continuity of pavement cells, shrunk microplicae, increased intra-microplicae distance, globularization and epithelial uplifting, thereby affecting the integrity of corneal surface and tear film adherence. Whereas dietary supplementation with the plant extract served to restore cytoarchitecture with appearance of large number of regenerating cells. Both lesions and restoration were found to be duration dependent. Thus, E. officinalis can be considered as an effective ameliorant against malachite green induced toxicity.

Keywords

Malachite green Toxicity Cyprinus carpio Cornea Ultrastructure Emblica officinalis 

Abbreviations

MG

Malachite green

EO

Emblica officinalis

RP-HPLC

Reverse phase

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

IAEC

Institutional Animal Ethical Committee

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the Chairperson, Department of Zoology for providing research facilities; Prof. Rajeev Patnaik, Department of Geology, Panjab University, Chandigarh for SEM facility; AIIMS, New Delhi for sample processing and ‘Sultan Singh Fish Seed Farm’, Karnal, Haryana for providing experimental fish. University Grant Commission—Basic Scientific Research Fellowship for meritorious students (Grant No. F.4-1/2006(BSR)/7-150/2007(BSR) dated 22-10-2013), New Delhi for funding the research project are duly acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Requisite animal ethical clearance from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee, Panjab University, Chandigarh (Ref no. PU/IAEC/S/14/149) has been taken, and fish were handled, maintained and sacrificed following IAEC guidelines.

References

  1. AOAC (2008) The systematic study on analytical techniques of over 1000 world commonly-used pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food of plant and animal origin. 122nd AOAC International Annual Meeting. Dallas. USAGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (2012) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 22nd edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Beuerman RW, Pedroza L (1996) Ultrastructure of the human cornea. Microsc Res Tech 33:320–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhandari PR, Kamdod MA (2012) Emblica officinalis (Amla): a review of potential therapeutic applications. Int J Green Pharm 6(4):257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brock N, Erhardt A (1951) Pharmacotherapy of oxyuriasis. I. Pharmacologic, toxicologic and chemotherapeutic studies with pararosaniline dyes and their carbinol bases. Arzneimittelforschung 1:5–21Google Scholar
  6. Buck RC (1979) Cell migration in repair of mouse corneal epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 18:767–784Google Scholar
  7. Caldicott A, Charman WN (2002) Diffraction haloes resulting from corneal oedema and epithelial cell size. Ophthal Physiol Opt 22(3):209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark JI (2004) Order and disorder in the transparent media of the eye. Exp Eye Res 78(3):427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clarke SM, Doughty MJ, Cullen AP (1990) Acute effects of ultraviolet-B irradiation on the corneal surface of the pigmented rabbit studied by quantitative scanning electron microscopy. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 68:639–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collin SP, Collin HB (2006) The corneal epithelial surface in the eyes of vertebrates: environmental and evolutionary influences on structure and function. J Morphol 267:229–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Das JK, Sarkar S, Hossain SU, Chakraborty P, Das RK, Bhattacharya S (2013) Diphenylmethyl selenocyanate attenuates malachite green induced oxidative injury through antioxidation & inhibition of DNA damage in mice. Indian J Med Res 137(6):1163–1173Google Scholar
  12. Dasaroju S, Gottumukkala KM (2014) Current trends in the research of Emblica officinalis (Amla): a pharmacological perspective. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 24: 150Google Scholar
  13. Doughty MJ (1998) Changes in cell surface primary cilia and microvilli concurrent with measurements of fluid flow across the rabbit corneal endothelium ex vivo. Tissue Cell 30:634–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herranz RM, Herran RMC (2012) Ocular surface: anatomy and physiology, disorders and therapeutic care. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ho YJ, Sun C-C, Chen H-C (2018) Cataract surgery in patients with corneal opacities. BMC Ophthalmol 18:106.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-018-0765-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hodson SA (1997) Corneal stromal swelling. Prog Retin Eye Res 16:99–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu W, Zhang J, Kang B (2016) Structure and function of corneal surface of mudskipper fishes. Fish Physiol Biochem 42(5):1481–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Igarashi H (1986) With which component of the bovine isolated cornea does sodium lauryl sulphate react to produce opacity? Toxicol Lett 32:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaoud HA, Zaki MM, El-Dahshan AR, Saeid S, El Zorba HY (2011) Amelioration the toxic effects of cadmium-exposure in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by using Lemna gibba L. Life Sci J 8(1):185–195Google Scholar
  20. Karnovsky MJ (1965) A formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative of high osmolality for use in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 27(2):1A–149AGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaur M, Jindal R (2018) Toxicopathic branchial lesions in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) exposed to chlorpyrifos. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 100(5):665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Majeed SA, Nambi KS, Taju G, Vimal S, Venkatesan C, Hameed AS (2014) Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish Channa striata. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21(23):13539–13550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meek KM, Knupp C (2015) Corneal structure and transparency. Prog Retin Eye Res 49:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mollazadeh H, Mahdian D, Hosseinzadeh H (2018) Medicinal plants in treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: a review based on their mechanisms and effectiveness.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.024
  25. OECD (2008) Guidance document for the performance of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies, supporting test guidelines, pp 451–453Google Scholar
  26. Pfister RR (1973) The normal surface of corneal epithelium: a scanning electron microscopy study. Invest Opthalmol 12:654–658Google Scholar
  27. Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour Technol 77:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Yogesh B, Anju B, Dipti P et al (2002) Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study. J Ethnopharmacol 81:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Srivastava S, Sinha R, Roy D (2004) Toxicological effects of malachite green: a review. Aquat Toxicol 66:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Subramanian S, Ross NW, MacKinnon SL (2008) Comparison of antimicrobial activity in the epidermal mucus extracts of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol B 150:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suryanarayana P, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB (2007) Emblica officinalis and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Mol Vis 13:1291–1297Google Scholar
  32. Uppal RK, Johal MS, Sharma ML (2015) Toxicological effects and recovery of the corneal epithelium in Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. exposed to monocrotophos: an scanning electron microscope study. Vet Ophthalmol 18(3):214–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Velpandian T, Saha K, Ravi AK, Kumari SS, Biswas NR, Ghose S (2007) Ocular hazards of the colors used during the festival-of-colors (Holi) in India—Malachite green toxicity. J Hazard Mater 139(2):204–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wong W, Sivak JG, Moran KL (2003) Optical response of the cultured bovine lens; testing opaque or partially transparent semisolid/solid common consumer hygiene products. Toxicol In Vitro 17:785–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations