Accurate and Sensitive Analytical Strategy for the Determination of Antimony: Hydrogen Assisted T-Shaped Slotted Quartz Tube-Atom Trap-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

  • Tuğçe Unutkan
  • İkbal Koyuncu
  • Cansu Diker
  • Merve Fırat
  • Çağdaş Büyükpınar
  • Sezgin BakırdereEmail author


Antimony is known to have some adverse health effects on human health. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is a widely used instrumental for the determination of antimony and other metals. However, it lacks the sensitivity to determine these metals at trace levels. This study was aimed at overcoming this setback by using hydrogen assisted T-shaped slotted quartz tube technique to preconcentrate and determine antimony by FAAS. All the system parameters were optimized to enhance the detection power of the system. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.75 and 2.49 µg L−1, respectively with R2 value of 0.9999. Accuracy of the developed method was validated by experimental results agreeing to the certified value of a standard reference material. Recovery studies were also carried out to determine the method’s applicability to tap and mineral water samples, and the results obtained were appreciable.


Antimony FAAS T-SQT Atom trap Hydrogen 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Altunay N, Gürkan R, Yıldırım E (2016) A new ultrasound assisted-cloud point extraction method for the determination of trace levels of tin and antimony in food and beverages by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 9:2960–2971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown AA, Taylor A (1984) Determination of copper and zinc in serum and urine by use of a slotted quartz tube and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. Analyst 109:1455–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown AA, Taylor A (1985) Applications of a slotted quartz tube and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry to the analysis of biological samples. Analyst 110:579–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Andrade JK, de Andrade CK, Felsner ML, Quináia SP, dos Anjos VE (2017) Pre-concentration and speciation of inorganic antimony in bottled water and natural water by cloud point extraction with electrothermal atomic absorption. Spectrom Microchem J 133:222–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deng R-J, Jin C-S, Ren B-Z, Hou B-L, Hursthouse A (2017) The potential for the treatment of antimony-containing wastewater by iron-based. Adsorbents Water 9:794. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Du X, Liang H, Qu F, Huang Y, Ye T, Li G (2013) An approach for thallium and antimony combined pollution removal in drinking water using potassium permanganate composites and polymeric ferric sulfate. J Harbin Inst Technol 45:33–37Google Scholar
  7. Emsley J (1981) The elements. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Fergusson JE (1990) The heavy elements: chemistry, environmental impact and health effects. Permagon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Filella M, Belzile N, Chen Y-W (2002) Antimony in the environment: a review focused on natural waters. Earth Sci Rev 57:125–176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaya G, Yaman M (2008) Online preconcentration for the determination of lead, cadmium and copper by slotted tube atom trap (STAT)-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 75:1127–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Matusiewicz H, Krawczyk M (2008) Determination of total antimony and inorganic antimony species by hydride generation in situ trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry: a new way to (ultra) trace speciation analysis. J Anal At Spectrom 23:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mendil D, Bardak H, Tuzen M, Soylak M (2013) Selective speciation of inorganic antimony on tetraethylenepentamine bonded silica gel column and its determination by graphite furnace atomic. Absorpt Spectrom Talanta 107:162–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mubarak H et al (2015) Antimony (Sb)—pollution and removal techniques—critical assessment of technologies. Toxicol Environ Chem 97:1296–1318. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Şahin İ, Büyükpınar Ç, San N, Bakırdere S (2018) Development of a sensitive analytical method for the determination of cadmium using hydrogen assisted T-shape slotted quartz tube-atom trap-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Spectrochim Acta B 147:9–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Santos GSd, Silva LO, Santos Júnior AF, da Silva EG, dos Santos WN (2018) Analytical strategies for determination and environmental impact assessment of inorganic antimony species in natural waters using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG AFS). J Braz Chem Soc 29:185–190Google Scholar
  16. Telford K, Maher W, Krikowa F, Foster S (2008) Measurement of total antimony and antimony species in mine contaminated soils by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. J Environ Monit 10:136–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Titretir S, Kendüzler E, Arslan Y, Kula İ, Bakırdere S, Ataman OY (2008) Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta B 63:875–879. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Titretir S, Şık A, Arslan Y, Ataman OY (2012) Sensitivity improvement for antimony determination by using in-situ atom trapping in a slotted quartz tube and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta B 77:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Uslu H, Büyükpınar Ç, Unutkan T, Serbest H, Nevin S, Turak F, Bakırdere S (2018) A novel analytical method for sensitive determination of lead: hydrogen assisted T-shape slotted quartz tube-atom trap-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchem J 137:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yaman M (2005) The improvement of sensitivity in lead and cadmium determinations using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Biochem 339:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yuksel B, Ozlcr-Yigiter A, Bora T, Sen N, Kayaalti Z (2016) GFAAS determination of antimony, barium, and lead levels in gunshot residue swabs: an application in forensic chemistry. At Spectrosc 37:4Google Scholar
  22. Zmijewska W (1994) Determination of antimony in natural waters by preconcentration on a chelating sorbent followed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res 43:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tuğçe Unutkan
    • 1
  • İkbal Koyuncu
    • 2
  • Cansu Diker
    • 2
  • Merve Fırat
    • 2
  • Çağdaş Büyükpınar
    • 2
  • Sezgin Bakırdere
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringYıldız Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryYıldız Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations