Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and their Genotoxic Effect on Freshwater Mussel

  • Muhammad Iftikhar Khan
  • Muhammad ZahoorEmail author
  • Ajmal Khan
  • Naila Gulfam
  • Muhammad Khisroon


Contamination of fresh water bodies like riverine system is utmost concerned environmental issue. This study was aimed to assess the concentration of heavy metals in River Kabul and their bioaccumulation by freshwater mussel. Comet assay was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of heavy metals on hemocytes of freshwater mussel. The concentration of heavy metals in water was in the order of Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Mn > Fe > Cr > Cd, in sediments were Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cd and in the soft tissues of freshwater mussel were in order of Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. The hemocytes of mussels from polluted sites showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DNA damage as compared to reference site. The study showed that pollutants from industries, municipal, domestic and agricultural sources cause heavy metals contamination in River Kabul.


River Kabul Heavy metals Bioaccumulation DNA damage Freshwater mussel 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Iftikhar Khan
    • 1
  • Muhammad Zahoor
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ajmal Khan
    • 1
  • Naila Gulfam
    • 1
  • Muhammad Khisroon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of MalakandDir LowerPakistan

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