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Deep Eutectic Solvent Based Air Assisted Ligandless Emulsification Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for Preconcentration of Some Heavy Metals in Biological and Environmental Samples


In this study, a deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on air-assisted ligandless emulsification liquid–liquid microextraction method (DES-AA-LL-ELLME) was considered for preconcentration and extraction of some metals (Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu). A 1:1 mixture of the synthesized DES and triethylamine was added as an extractant to extract metal ions in the absence of chelating agent. Tetrahydrofuran as the aprotic solvent provided a turbid state. To disperse the aggregated DES droplets into the aqueous phase, air-assisted was performed. The influence of several effective parameters was monitored. Under optimum conditions, limits of detection were found in the range of 0.31–0.99 µg L−1 with preconcentration factor from 67 to 69. The relative standard deviation (n = 10) was in the range of 2.1%–3.1% for all analytes. This procedure was applied to determine some metals in both biological and environmental samples with appropriate recoveries about 98.7%–106%.

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Support of this investigation by the research council of faculty of pharmacy, Tehran University of medical sciences and the research council of Payame Noor University is gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Khosrou Abdi.

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Ezoddin, M., Lamei, N., Siami, F. et al. Deep Eutectic Solvent Based Air Assisted Ligandless Emulsification Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for Preconcentration of Some Heavy Metals in Biological and Environmental Samples. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101, 814–819 (2018).

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  • Deep eutectic solvent
  • Triethylamine
  • Air assisted ligandless emulsification liquid–liquid microextraction
  • Biological and environmental samples