Carbonaceous Species of PM2.5 in Megacity Delhi, India During 2012–2016

  • S. K. Sharma
  • T. K. Mandal
  • A. Sharma
  • Srishti Jain
  • Saraswati
Article

Abstract

Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were estimated to study the seasonal and inter-annual variability of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols (TCA) at an urban site of megacity Delhi, India for 5 years from January, 2012 to December, 2016. The annual average (± standard deviation) concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC and TCA were 128 ± 81, 16.6 ± 12.2, 8.4 ± 5.8 and 34.5 ± 25.2 µg m−3, respectively. During the study, significant seasonal variations in mass concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC and TCA were observed with maxima in winter and minima in monsoon seasons. Significant correlations between OC and EC, and OC/EC ratio suggested that vehicular emissions, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning could be major sources of carbonaceous aerosols of PM2.5 at the sampling site of Delhi, India.

Keywords

PM2.5 Organic carbon Elemental carbon Total carbonaceous aerosols 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-NPL, New Delhi and Head, Environmental Sciences & Biomedical Metrology Division (ES&BMD), CSIR-NPL, New Delhi for their encouragement. The authors also acknowledge the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), New Delhi for providing partial financial support for this study (GAP-161632 Project).

References

  1. Amato F, Pandolfi M, Escrig A, Querol X, Alastuery A, Pey J, Perez N, Hopke PK (2009) Quantification of road dust resuspension in urban environment by multilinear engine: a comparison with PMF2. Atmos Environ 43:2770–2780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Begum BA, Kim E, Biswas SK, Hopke PK (2004) Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at urban and semi-urban areas in Bangladesh. Atmos Environ 38:3025–3038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Begum BA, Akhter S, Sarker L, Biswas SK (2006) Gravimateric analysis of air filters and quality assurance in weighing. Nucl Sci Appl 15:36–41Google Scholar
  4. Bisht DS, Dumka UC, Kaskaoutis DG, Pipal AS, Srivastava AK, Soni VK, Attri SD, Sateesh M, Tiwari S (2015) Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing. Sci Total Environ 521–522:431–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng Y, Lee SC, Ho KF, Wang YQ, Cao JJ, (2006) Black carbon measurement in a coastal area of south China. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jd006663 Google Scholar
  6. Chow JC, Watson JG, Chen LWA, Arnott WP, Moosmuller H (2004) Equivalence of elemental carbon by thermal/optical reflectance and transmittance with different temperature protocols. Environ Sci Techno 38:4414–4422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Datta A, Saud T, Goel A, Tiwari S, Sharma SK, Saxena M, Mandal TK (2010) Variation of ambient SO2 over Delhi. J Atmos Chem 65:127–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (2016) Delhi Statistical Handbook. Registered vehicles in Delhi. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt of National Capital Delhi. http://www.des.delhigovt.nic.in
  9. Dockery DW, Stone PH (2007) Cardiovascular risks from fine particulate air pollution. N Engl J Med 356:511–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fuzzi S, Baltensperger U, Carslaw K, Decesari S, Denier van der Gon H, Facchini MC, Fowler D, Koren I, Langford B, Lohmann U, Nemitz E, Pandis S, Riipinen I, Rudich Y, Schaap M, Slowik JG, Spracklen DV, Vignati E, Wild M, Williams M, Gilardoni S (2015) Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs. Atmos Chem Phys 15:8217–8299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gauderman WJ, Urman R, Avol E, Berhane K, McConnell R, Rappaport E, Chang R, Lurmann F, Gilliland F (2015) Association of improved air quality with lung development in children. N Engl J Med 372:905–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gupta S, Gadi R, Sharma SK, Mandal TK (2018) Characterization and source apportionment of organic compounds in PM10 using PCA and PMF at a traffic hotspot of Delhi. Sustain Cities Soc 39:52–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacobson MZ (2001) Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 409:695–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jacobson MC, Hansson HC, Noone KJ, Charlson RJ (2000) Organic atmospheric aerosols: Review and state of the science. Reviews of Geophy 38:267–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jain S, Sharma SK, Choudhary N, Masiwal R, Saxena M, Sharma A, Mandal TK, Gupta A, Gupta NC, Sharma C (2017) Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5 using PCA/APCS, UNMIX and PMF at an urban site of Delhi, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:14637–14656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jerret M (2015) Atmospheric science: the death toll from air-pollution sources. Nature 525:330–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones GSA, Jones A, Roberts DL, Stott PA, Williams KD (2005) Sensitivity of global scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel balck carbon aerosl. Geophys Res Lett 32:L14701Google Scholar
  18. Kanakidou M, Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN, Barnes I, Dentener FJ, Facchini MC, Dingenen R Van, Ervens B, Nenes A, Nielsen CJ, Swietlicki E, Putaud JP, Balkanski Y, Fuzzi S, Horth J, Moortgat GK, Winterhalter R, Myhre CEL, Tsigaridis K, Vignati E, Stephanou EG, Wilson J (2005) Organic aerosol and global climate modelling: a review. Atmos Chem Phys 5:1053–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lawrence MG, Lelieveld J (2010) Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review. Atmos Chem Phys 10:1017–11096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lelieveld J, Evans JS, Fnais M, Giannadaki D, Pozzer A (2015) The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale. Nature 525:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mandal P, Saud T, Sarkar R, Mandal A, Sharma SK, Mandal TK, Bassin JK (2014) High seasonal variation of atmospheric C and particulate concentrations in Delhi, India. Environ Chem Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-013-0438-y Google Scholar
  22. Novakov T, Andreae MO, Gabriel R, Kirchstetter TW, Mayol- Bracero OL (2000) Origin of carbonaceous aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean: biomass burning or fossil fuels? Geophys Res Lett 27:4061–4064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pope CA, Dockery DW (2006) Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect. JAPCA 56:709–742Google Scholar
  24. Ram K, Sarin MM (2010) Spatio-temporal variability in atmospheric abundances of EC, OC and WSOC over Northern India. J Aerosol Sci 41(1):88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ram K, Sarin MM, Tripathi SN (2010) One-year record of carbonaceous aerosols from an urban location (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: characterization, sources and temporal variability. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014188 Google Scholar
  26. Salameh D, Detournary A, Prey J, Perez N, Liguri F, Saraga et al (2015) PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: a 1-year study. Atmos Res 155:102–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Salma I, Chi XG, Maenhaut W (2004) Elemental and organic carbon in urban canyon and background environments in Budapest, Hungary. Atmos Environ 38:2517–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharma SK, Mandal TK (2017) Chemical composition of fine mode particulate matter (PM2.5) at an urban area of Delhi and its source apportionment. Urban Clim 21:106–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sharma SK, Mandal TK, Saxena M, Rashmi, Rohtash, Sharma A, Gautam R (2014) Variation of OC, EC, WSIC and trace metals of PM10 in Delhi. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 113:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sharma SK, Mandal TK, Shenoy DM, Bardhan P, Srivastava MK, Chatterjee A, Saxena M, Saraswati, Singh BP, Ghosh SK (2015) Variation of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes composition of PM10 over Indo Gangetic Plain of India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 95(5):661–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sharma SK, Mandal TK, Jain S, Saraswati, Sharma A, Saxena M (2016) Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Delhi, India using PMF model. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 97:286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sharma SK, Agarwal P, Mandal TK, Karapurkar SG, Shenoy DM, Peshin SK, Gupta A, Saxena M, Jain S, Sharma A, Saraswati (2017a) Study on ambient air quality of megacity Delhi, India during Odd-Even strategy. Mapan J Metro Soc India 32(2):155–165Google Scholar
  33. Sharma SK, Mandal TK, Dey AK, Deb NC, Jain S, Saxena M, Pal S, Chouhuri AK (2017b) Carbonaceous and inorganic species in PM10 during winter time over Indo Gangetic Plain of India. J Atmos Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-017-9373-9 Google Scholar
  34. Simoneit BRT, Kobayashi M, Mochida M, Kawamura K, Huebert BJ (2004) Aerosol particles collected on aircraft flights over the northwestern Pacific region during the ACE-Asia campaign: composition and major sources of the organic compounds. J Geophy Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004565 Google Scholar
  35. Sjogren S, Gysel M, Weingartner E, Balttensperger U, Cubison MJ, Coe H, Zardini AA, Marcolli C, Krieger UK, Peter T (2007) Hygroscopic growth and water uptake kinetics of two phase aerosol paricles consisting of ammonium sulfate, adipic and humic acid mixture. Aerosol Sci 38:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Srinivas B, Sarin MM (2014) PM2.5, EC and OC in atmospheric outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain: temporal variability and aerosol organic carbon-to-organic mass conversion factor. Sci Total Environ 487:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Szidat S, Jenk TM, Synal HA, Kalberer M, Wacker L, Hajdas I, Kasper-Gieblt A, Baltensperger U (2006) Contribution of fossil fuel, biomass burning and biogenic emissions to carbonaceous aerosols in Zurich as traced by 14C. J Geophys Res 111:D07206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Velali E, Papachristou E, Pantazaki A, Choli-Papadopoulou T, Argyrou N, Tsourouktsoglou T, Lialiaris S, Constantinidis A, Lykidis D, Lialiaris TS, Besis A, Voutsa D, Samara C (2016) Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced in vitro by solvent extractable organic matter of size-segregated urban particulate matter. Environ Pollut 218:1350–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Venkataraman C, Habib G, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH (2005) Friedlander, S. K. Residential biofuels in south Asia: carbonaceous aerosol emissions and climate impacts. Science 307:1454–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Waked A, Favez O, Alleman LY, Piot C, Petit JE, Delaunay T, Verlinden E, Golly B, Besombes JL, Jaffrezo JL, Leoz-Garziandia E (2014) Source apportionment of PM10 in a north-western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using positive matrix factorization and including pri-mary biogenic emissions. Atmos Chem Phys 14:3325–3346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang Q, Worsnop DR, Canangaratna MR, Jimenez JL (2005) Hydocarbon-like and ogygenated organic aerosols in Pittsburgh: insights into sources and processes of organic aerosol. Atmos Chem Phys 5:3289–3311CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Sharma
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. K. Mandal
    • 1
  • A. Sharma
    • 1
  • Srishti Jain
    • 1
  • Saraswati
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences and Biomedical Metrology DivisionCSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations