Using Pb Isotope to Quantify the Effect of Various Sources on Multi-Metal Polluted soil in Guiyu

  • Shizhong Jiang
  • Jie LuoEmail author
  • Yuqun Ye
  • Ge Yang
  • Wen Pi
  • Wenxiang He


Guiyu is known as one of the largest e-waste disposal and recycling sites in China, which suffers greatly from heavy metal pollution. By evaluating the concentrations and distribution of 21 metal elements with Principal Component Analyses (PCA), five principal components were identified, which accounted for 70.4% of the information of the initial data matrix, including one e-waste recycling source, two geological sources, one source of human activities and one ocean aerosol source. Among them, the source of human activities cannot be detailed only by PCA. By using Pb isotope, the unexplained source was judged as battery sludge. Combining 21 metallic and metalloid element datasets with Pb isotope concentrations is more accurate and effective to identify uncertain sources in soil.


Heavy metal Electronic waste Pollution source Isotope Soil 



The authors wish to thank the National Key Technical Projects (Project No. 2016ZX05047-005) for the financial support of this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human and Animal Participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shizhong Jiang
    • 1
  • Jie Luo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuqun Ye
    • 1
  • Ge Yang
    • 1
  • Wen Pi
    • 1
  • Wenxiang He
    • 1
  1. 1.KLETOR Ministry of EducationYangtze UniversityWuhanChina

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