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Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil

Abstract

The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic.

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Acknowledgments

The acknowledgments for the realization of this work go to Technical Director of Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lazio Ing. Rossella Cintoli.

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Correspondence to Alessandro Sassolini.

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Sassolini, A., Brinchi, G., Di Gennaro, A. et al. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 97, 432–438 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-016-1860-1

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Keywords

  • Old chemical weapon
  • Derivatization
  • Triphenylarsine
  • Phenylarsenic dichloride
  • Yperite