Enhanced Skin Absorption and Fly Toxicity of Permethrin in Emulsion Formulation

  • W. G. ReifenrathEmail author

In the course of developing new formulations for fly control, we examined the skin disposition of insecticide permethrin, using excised pig skin and evaporation/penetration cells. This model has been shown to be predictive of human skin absorption (Reifenrath et al. 1984; Reifenrath and Hawkins 1986). Since permethrin formulations are intentionally applied to the skin of livestock, we also studied the disposition on cattle skin using similar methods. In many cases, dermal absorption studies of pesticides are conducted in simple solvents, such as acetone or ethanol (Shah et al. 1987), and may not be representative of skin absorption from other types of vehicles. Dust formulations of pesticides are frequently used for fly control in livestock. Emulsifiable concentrates (EC) are diluted and water and the resultant emulsion is applied as space sprays to inanimate surfaces as well as to livestock. Therefore, we determined the evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of permethrin...


Stratum Corneum Carbaryl Deet Skin Penetration Emulsifiable Concentrate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stratacor, IncRichmondUSA

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