Differences in duration of untreated psychosis for racial and ethnic minority groups with first-episode psychosis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Nicole Schoer
  • Chen Wei Huang
  • Kelly K. AndersonEmail author
Brief report



Ethnic minority groups with early psychosis may have longer treatment delays, potentially leading to poorer outcomes. We updated a previous systematic review of the literature on racial and ethnic differences in duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) among people with first-episode psychosis.


Six of 17 studies described significant differences across aggregated racial groups; however, the pooled estimates did not show differences across groups. Additional data from this update allowed for disaggregated analyses, finding that Black-African groups have a shorter DUP, whereas Black-Caribbean groups have longer DUP, relative to White groups.


These findings highlight the importance of in-depth research on disaggregated ethnic groups to inform targeted early intervention strategies for minority populations.


First-episode psychosis Duration of untreated psychosis Ethnicity Race Treatment delay Early intervention 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

127_2019_1737_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (15 kb)
ESM_1: Flow chart of the search strategy and exclusion process for the systematic review (PDF 15 kb)
127_2019_1737_MOESM2_ESM.xls (68 kb)
ESM_2: Characteristics of studies included in systematic review (n = 17) (XLS 68 kb)
127_2019_1737_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (17 kb)
ESM_3: Findings on duration of untreated psychosis and ethnic/racial group for studies included in the systematic review (n = 17) (XLSX 17 kb)
127_2019_1737_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
ESM_4: Quality assessment ratings for studies included in the systematic review (n = 17) (XLSX 11 kb)
127_2019_1737_MOESM5_ESM.png (50 kb)
ESM_5: Meta-analysis of the log-transformed standardized mean difference (SMD) in duration of untreated psychosis for Black and Asian groups relative to White (PNG 50 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Schoer
    • 1
  • Chen Wei Huang
    • 1
  • Kelly K. Anderson
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & DentistryThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Schulich School of Medicine & DentistryThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

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