Advertisement

Longitudinal association between social anxiety disorder and incident alcohol use disorder: results from two national samples of US adults

  • Beyon MiloyanEmail author
  • George Van Doorn
Original Paper
  • 160 Downloads

Abstract

This study assessed the association between subclinical social fears and a 12-month diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) at baseline and the risk of incident Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) at follow-up, compared to those without subclinical social fears and a 12-month diagnosis of SAD. We performed an individual participant meta-analysis based on data from two national longitudinal surveys. Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) was conducted in 2001–2002 in a sample of 43,093 adults and Wave 2 was conducted in 2004–2005 in 34,653 of the original respondents. Wave 1 of the National Comorbidity Survey was conducted in 1990–1992 in a sample of 8098 respondents and Wave 2 was conducted in 2001–2002 in 5001 of the original respondents. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed independently in each study and then the effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Neither subclinical social fears nor 12-month SAD at baseline were associated with incident AUD at follow-up. These findings conflict with reports of previous studies that a diagnosis of SAD is a risk factor for AUD in adults, and suggest that subclinical social fears are not associated with differential risk of incident AUD.

Keywords

Social phobia Alcoholism Incidence Prospective cohort study Epidemiology 

Notes

Funding

BM received funding from the Johns Hopkins Epidemiology and Biostatistics of Aging Training Program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) under award number T32AG000247.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Khantzian EJ (1985) The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. Am J Psychiatry 142:1259–1264.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.142.11.1259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S et al (1994) Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ross HE, Glaser FB, Germanson T (1988) The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with alcohol and other drug problems. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45:1023–1031.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800350057008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schneier FR, Johnson J, Hornig CD et al (1992) Social phobia. Comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiologic sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:282–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buckner JD, Schmidt NB, Lang AR et al (2008) Specificity of social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol and cannabis dependence. J Psychiatr Res 42:230–239.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buckner JD, Timpano KR, Zvolensky MJ et al (2008) Implications of comorbid alcohol dependence among individuals with social anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety 25:1028–1037.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buckner JD, Turner RJ (2009) Social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol use disorders: a prospective examination of parental and peer influences. Drug Alcohol Depend 100:128–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schneier FR, Foose TE, Hasin DS et al (2010) Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder co-morbidity in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychol Med 40:977–988.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709991231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bacon AK, Ham LS (2010) Attention to social threat as a vulnerability to the development of comorbid social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders: an avoidance-coping cognitive model. Addict Behav 35:925–939.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buckner JD, Heimberg RG, Ecker AH, Vinci C (2013) A biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use. Depress Anxiety 30:276–284.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bulley A, Miloyan B, Brilot B et al (2016) An evolutionary perspective on the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. J Affect Disord 196:62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.02.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schry AR, White SW (2013) Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: a meta-analysis. Addict Behav 38:2690–2706.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carrigan MH, Randall CL (2003) Self-medication in social phobia: a review of the alcohol literature. Addict Behav 28:269–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00235-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Crum RM, Pratt LA (2001) Risk of heavy drinking and alcohol use disorders in social phobia: a prospective analysis. Am J Psychiatry 158:1693–1700.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.10.1693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buckner JD, Heimberg RG (2010) Drinking behaviors in social situations account for alcohol-related problems among socially anxious individuals. Psychol Addict Behav J Soc Psychol Addict Behav 24:640–648.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020968 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Santesso DL, Schmidt LA, Fox NA (2004) Are shyness and sociability still a dangerous combination for substance use? Evidence from a US and Canadian sample. Personal Individ Differ 37:5–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2003.08.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thomas SE, Randall CL, Carrigan MH (2003) Drinking to cope in socially anxious individuals: a controlled study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:1937–1943.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000100942.30743.8C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grant BF, Moore TC, Kaplan K (2003) Source and accuracy statement: wave 1 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grant B, Kaplan KD (2005) Source and accuracy statement for the 2004–2005 wave 2 national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kessler RC (1994) The national comorbidity survey of the United States. Int Rev Psychiatry 6:365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kessler RC (2011) The national comorbidity survey (NCS) and its extensions. In: Textbook of psychiatric epidemiology. Wiley, West Sussex, pp 221–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grant BF, Dawson DA, Stinson FS et al (2003) The alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric diagnostic modules in a general population sample. Drug Alcohol Depend 71:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wittchen HU (1994) Reliability and validity of studies of the WHO-composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI): a critical review. J Psychiatr Res 28:57–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grant B, Stinson FS, Dawson DA et al (2004) Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:807–816.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.8.807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martins SS, Ko J, Kuwabara S et al (2012) The relationship of adult mental disorders to socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, marital status, and urbanicity of residence. In: Eaton WW (ed) Public mental health. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Power C, Rodgers B, Hope S (1999) Heavy alcohol consumption and marital status: disentangling the relationship in a national study of young adults. Addict Abingdon Engl 94:1477–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beesdo K, Bittner A, Pine DS et al (2007) Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:903–912.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.8.903 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Burstein M, He J-P, Kattan G et al (2011) Social phobia and subtypes in the national comorbidity survey-adolescent supplement: prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:870–880.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Behrendt S, Beesdo-Baum K, Zimmermann P et al (2011) The role of mental disorders in the risk and speed of transition to alcohol use disorders among community youth. Psychol Med 41:1073–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710001418 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dahne J, Banducci AN, Kurdziel G, MacPherson L (2014) Early adolescent symptoms of social phobia prospectively predict alcohol use. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 75:929–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McKenzie M, Jorm AF, Romaniuk H et al (2011) Association of adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety with alcohol use disorders in young adulthood: findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. Med J Aust 195:S27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pardee CS, Colder CR, Bowker JC (2014) Dynamic associations among alcohol use and anxiety symptoms in early adolescence. Psychol Addict Behav J Soc Psychol Addict Behav 28:1246–1252.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zimmermann P, Wittchen HU, Höfler M et al (2003) Primary anxiety disorders and the development of subsequent alcohol use disorders: a 4-year community study of adolescents and young adults. Psychol Med 33:1211–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bekman NM, Cummins K, Brown SA (2010) Affective and personality risk and cognitive mediators of initial adolescent alcohol use. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 71:570–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brook CA, Willoughby T (2016) Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: adaptive and maladaptive groups. Dev Psychol 52:835–845.  https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mackinnon SP, Kehayes I-LL, Clark R et al (2014) Testing the four-factor model of personality vulnerability to alcohol misuse: a three-wave, one-year longitudinal study. Psychol Addict Behav J Soc Psychol Addict Behav 28:1000–1012.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037244 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Norberg MM, Norton AR, Olivier J, Zvolensky MJ (2010) Social anxiety, reasons for drinking, and college students. Behav Ther 41:555–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2010.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Faculty of HealthFederation University AustraliaChurchillAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations