Previous studies have shown high prevalence rates of Common Mental Disorder (CMD) in developing countries, however few have studied its relationship with physical morbidity.
To examine the association between CMD and anaemia, malnutrition and physical symptoms.
Outpatients attending a hospital for tribal people in Kerala, India were interviewed to collect information on demographic characteristics, physical symptoms and life events. They were weighed and measured and their haemoglobin concentration was measured. Associations between these data and Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ) score were examined.
Multivariate analysis showed high SRQ score was associated with more physical symptoms, being female, no education and more life events in the past year.
The main associations of CMD are social. The association with physical symptoms may also be socially mediated.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abas MA, Broadhead JA (1997) Depression and anxiety in an urban setting in Zimbabwe. Psychol Med 27:59–71
Bahar E, Henderson AS, Mackinnon AJ (1992) An epidemiological study mental health and socio-economic conditions in Sumatera, Indonesia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 85:257–263
Bhagwanjee A, Parekh A, Paruk Z, Petersen I, Subedar H (1998) Prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders in an adult African rural community in South Africa. Psychol Med 28:1137–1147
Brodman K, Erdnan AJ, Large I (1949) The Cornell Medical Index. J Am Med Assoc 140:530–540
Brugha T, Bebbington P, Tennant C (1985) The list of threatening experiences: a subset of 12 life event categories with considerable long-term threat. Psychol Med 15:189–194
Cheng TA (1988) A community study of minor psychiatric morbidity in Taiwan. Psychol Med 18:953–968
Dhadphale M, Ellison RH, Griffin L (1983) The frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients attending semi-urban and rural general outpatient clinics in Kenya. Br J Psychiatry 142:379–383
Goldberg DP, Lecrubier Y (1995) Form and frequency of mental disorders across centres. In: Bustun T, Sartorius N (eds) Mental illness in general health care: an international study. John Wiley, Chichester, pp 323–334
Hackett R, Hackett L, Bhakta P, Gower S (1999) The prevalence and associations of psychiatric disorder in children in Kerala, South India. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40:801–807
Harding TW, Arango MV, Battazar J, Climent CE, Ibrahim HHA, Ladrido-Ignacio L, Mrthy RS (1980) Mental disorders in primary health care. Psychol Med 10:231–241
Hollifield M, Katon W, Spain D, Limakatso P (1990) Anxiety and depression in a village in Lesotho, Africa: a comparison with the United States. Br J Psychiatry 156:343–350
Husain N, Creed F, Tomenson B (2000) Depression and social stress in Pakistan. Psychol Med 30:395–402
Jacobsson L (1985) Psychiatric morbidity and psychosocial background in an outpatient population of a general hospital in western Ethiopia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 71:417–425
Mumford DB, Nazir M, Jilani F, Baig IY (1996) Stress and psychiatric disorder in the Hindu Kush—a community survey of mountain villages in Chitral, Pakistan. Br J Psychiatry 168:299–307
Mumford DB, Saeed K, Ahmad I, Latif S, Mubbashar MH (1997) Stress and psychiatric disorder in rural Punjab—a community survey. Br J Psychiatry 170:473–478
Ngoma MC, Prince M, Mann A (2003) Common mental disorders among those attending primary health clinics and traditional healers in urban Tanzania. Br J Psychiatry 183:349–355
Orley J, Wing JK (1979) Psychiatric disorders in two African villages. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:513–520
Patel V, Todd C, Winston M, Gwanzura F, Simunyu E, Acuda W, Mann A (1997) Common mental disorders in primary care in Harare, Zimbabwe: associations and risk factors. Br J Psychiatry 171:60–64
Patel V, Pereira J, Coutinho L, Fernandes R, Fernandes J, Mann A (1998) Poverty, psychological disorder and disability in primary care attenders in Goa, India. Br J Psychiatry 172:533–536
Rahim SIA Cederblad M (1989) Epidemiology of mental disorders in young adults of a newly urbanised area of Khartoum, Sudan. Br J Psychiatry 155:44–47
Royston E (1982) The prevalence of nutritional anaemia in women in developing countries: a critical review of available information. World Health Stat Q 35:52–91
Rumble S, Swartz L, Parry C, Zwarenstein M (1996) Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the adult population of a rural South African village. Psychol Med 26:997–1007
Shamasundar C, Krishna Murthy S, Prakash O, Prabhakar N, Subba Krishna DK (1986) Psychiatric morbidity in a general practice in an India city. Br Med J 292:1713–1715
Shorvon S, Carney M, Chanarin I (1980) The neuropsychiatry of megaloblastic anaemia. Br Med J 281:1036–1038
Vazquez Barquero J, Munoz P, Madoz Jauregui V (1981) The interaction between physical illness and neurotic morbidity in the community. Br J Psychiatry 139:328–335
Waterlow J (1984) Current issues nutritional assessment by anthropometry. In: Brozek J, Schurch B (eds) Malnutrition and behaviour: critical assessment of key issues. Nestle Foundation, Lausanne, Switzerland
Youdim M, Ben-Shachar D, Yehuda S (1989) Putative biological mechanisms of the effect of iron deficiency on brain biochemistry and behaviour. Am J Clin Nutr 50:607–617
I am indebted to Jaladhiraj, Suma and Girija, health workers at the Swami Vivekandanda Medical Mission, for conducting the interviews and to Dr.C.Rajagopalan, Dr.N.Mahadun and Dr.C.T.Sudhir Kumar for translation.
About this article
Cite this article
Hackett, R.J., Sagdeo, D. & Creed, F.H. The physical and social associations of common mental disorder in a tribal population in South India. Soc Psychiat Epidemiol 42, 712–715 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-007-0223-y
- common mental disorder