Advertisement

Metal fluxes during magmatic degassing in the oceanic crust: sulfide mineralisation at ODP site 786B, Izu-Bonin forearc

  • C. G. C. PattenEmail author
  • I. K. Pitcairn
  • J. C. Alt
  • T. Zack
  • Y. Lahaye
  • D. A. H. Teagle
  • K. Markdahl
Article
  • 90 Downloads

Abstract

Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits are enriched in metals that are either derived from hydrothermal alteration of the basement rocks or supplied by exsolution of metal-rich volatiles during magmatic differentiation. The extent to which each process contributes to metal enrichment in these deposits varies between different tectonic settings. Ocean Drilling Program Hole 786B recovered > 800 m of upper oceanic crust from a supra-subduction zone setting and includes a 30-m-thick mineralised zone. In situ S isotopic compositions of pyrite decrease from 5.9 ± 2.9‰ in the upper mineralised zone down to − 3.3 ± 2.1‰ in the extensively altered central mineralisation zone, potentially indicating strong magmatic fluid input in this area. Whole rock data and in situ trace element analyses in sulfide minerals show enrichment of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Mo, S, Se, Sb and Te in the mineralised zone. Evaluation of metal behaviour during magmatic differentiation and primary metal fertility of basement rocks suggests that degassing melt is the main source for the high Au, Se and S enrichment observed in the mineralised zone. Magmatic volatile exsolution occurred late during the magmatic differentiation (~ 2 wt.% MgO), concomitant with oxide crystallisation and metal depletion in the melt. Comparison of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 786B with volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits hosted by boninitic volcanic successions, such as in the Semail ophiolite, the Newfoundland Appalachians and the Flin Flon Belt, suggests that magmatic fluid exsolution could be a common mechanism for Au enrichment in bimodal mafic volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Steve Piercey and Tucker Barrie, the associated editor and the editor-in-chief for the thorough review of the manuscript. This research used samples provided by the ODP and IODP, and the authors would like to thank the IODP Kochi Core Centre, Japan. The ODP was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and participating countries under management of Joint Oceanographic Institutions. The IODP was supported by the National Science Foundation, Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling, the Australia-New Zealand IODP Consortium, and the People’s Republic of China Ministry of Science and Technology.

Funding information

This work was funded by Stockholm University and by the Swedish Research Council (PRG 621-2007-4539).

Supplementary material

126_2019_900_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (2.4 mb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 2472 kb)

References

  1. Alabaster T, Pearce JA (1985) The interrelationship between magmatic and ore-forming hydrothermal processes in the Oman ophiolite. Econ Geol 80:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alabaster T, Pearce JA, Malpas J (1982) The volcanic stratigraphy and petrogenesis of the Oman ophiolite complex. Contrib Mineral Petrol 81:168–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alt JC (1995a) Subseafloor processes in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Seafloor hydrothermal systems. Phys Chem Biol Geol Interact 85–114Google Scholar
  4. Alt JC (1995b) Sulfur isotopic profile through the oceanic crust: sulfur mobility and seawater-crustal sulfur exchange during hydrothermal alteration. Geology 23:585–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alt JC, Shanks WC (2011) Microbial sulfate reduction and the sulfur budget for a complete section of altered oceanic basalts, IODP Hole 1256D (eastern Pacific). Earth Planet Sci Lett 310:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alt JC, Anderson TF, Bonnell L (1989) The geochemistry of sulfur in a 1.3 km section of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust, DSDP Hole 504B. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:1011–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alt JC, Dah T, Brewer T, Shanks WC, Halliday A (1998) Alteration and mineralization of an oceanic forearc and the ophiolite-ocean crust analogy. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 103:12365–12380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alt JC, Laverne C, Coggon RM, Teagle DAH, Banerjee NR, Morgan S, Smith-Duque CE, Harris M, Galli L (2010) Subsurface structure of a submarine hydrothermal system in ocean crust formed at the East Pacific Rise, ODP/IODP Site 1256. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 11Google Scholar
  9. Arculus RJ, Pearce JA, Murton BJ, Van der Laan SR (1992) Igneous stratigraphy and major element geochemistry of Holes 786A and 786B. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results 25:143–169Google Scholar
  10. Arevalo R, McDonough WF (2010) Chemical variations and regional diversity observed in MORB. Chem Geol 271(1-2):70–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Audétat A, Pettke T (2003) The magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of two barren granites: a melt and fluid inclusion study of the Rito del Medio and Cañada Pinabete plutons in northern New Mexico (USA). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(1):97–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bailes AH, Galley AG (2000) Evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Snow Lake arc assemblage and geodynamic setting for associated volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits, Flin Flon Belt, Manitoba, Canada. Can J Earth Sci 36:1789–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barrie CT, Hannington MD (1999) Classification of volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits based on host-rock composition. In: Volcanic Associated Massive Sulfide Deposits: Processes and Examples in Modern and Ancient Settings. Soc Econ GeolGoogle Scholar
  14. Bougault H, Hekinian R (1974) Rift valley in the Atlantic Ocean near 36 50′ N: petrology and geochemistry of basaltic rocks. Earth Planet Sci Lett 24:249–261Google Scholar
  15. Brueckner SM, Piercey SJ, Sylvester PJ, Maloney S, Pilgrim L (2014) Evidence for syngenetic precious metal enrichment in an Appalachian volcanogenic massive sulfide system: the 1806 zone, Ming Mine, Newfoundland, Canada. Econ Geol 109:1611–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brueckner SM, Piercey SJ, Layne GD et al (2015) Variations of sulphur isotope signatures in sulphides from the metamorphosed Ming Cu (− Au) volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Newfoundland Appalachians, Canada. Mineral Deposita 50:619–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cosca M, Arculus R, Pearce J, Mitchell J (1998) 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar geochronological age constraints for the inception and early evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system. Island Arc 7:579–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deschamps A, Lallemand S (2003) Geodynamic setting of Izu-Bonin-Mariana boninites. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 219:163–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dobson PF, O'Neil JR (1987) Stable isotope compositions and water contents of boninite series volcanic rocks from Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan. Earth Planet Sci Lett 82(1-2):75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duff S, Hannington MD, Caté A et al (2015) Major ore types of the Paleoproterozoic Lalor auriferous volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Snow Lake, Manitoba. Target Geosci Initiat 4:147–170Google Scholar
  21. Duran C, Barnes S-J, Corkery J (2015) Chalcophile and platinum-group element distribution in pyrites from the sulfide-rich pods of the Lac des Iles Pd deposits, Western Ontario, Canada: implications for post-cumulus re-equilibration of the ore and the use of pyrite compositions in exploration. J Geochem Explor 158:223–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frank MR, Simon AC, Pettke T, Candela PA, Piccoli PM (2011) Gold and copper partitioning in magmatic-hydrothermal systems at 800 C and 100 MPa. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:2470–2482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gamo T, Okamura K, Charlou J-L, Urabe T, Auzende J-M, Ishibashi J, Shitashima K, Chiba H (1997) Acidic and sulfate-rich hydrothermal fluids from the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Geol 25:139–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gemmell JB, Sharpe R (1998) Detailed sulfur-isotope investigation of the TAG hydrothermal mound and stockwork zone, 26 N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results:71–84Google Scholar
  25. Genna D, Gaboury D (2015) Deciphering the hydrothermal evolution of a VMS system by LA-ICP-MS using trace elements in pyrite: an example from the Bracemac-McLeod deposits, Abitibi, Canada, and implications for exploration. Econ Geol 110:2087–2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Georgatou A, Chiaradia M, Rezeau H, Wälle M (2018) Magmatic sulphides in quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas. Lithos 296:580–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gilbert SE, Danyushevsky LV, Rodermann T, Shimizu A, Gurenko A, Meffre S, Thomas H, Large RR, Death D (2014) Optimisation of laser parameters for the analysis of sulphur isotopes in sulphide minerals by laser ablation ICP-MS. J Anal At Spectrom 29:1042–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilgen SA, Diamond LW, Mercolli I, al-Tobi K, Maidment DW, Close R, al-Towaya A (2014) Volcanostratigraphic controls on the occurrence of massive sulfide deposits in the Semail Ophiolite, Oman. Econ Geol 109:1585–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gualda GAR, Ghiorso MS (2015) MELTS_Excel: AMicrosoft Excel-based MELTS interface for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 16(1):315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haase KM, Freund S, Beier C, Koepke J, Erdmann M, Hauff F (2016) Constraints on the magmatic evolution of the oceanic crust from plagiogranite intrusions in the Oman ophiolite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 171:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hamlyn PR, Keays RR, Cameron WE, Crawford AJ, Waldron HM (1985) Precious metals in magnesian low-Ti lavas: implications for metallogenesis and sulfur saturation in primary magmas. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:1797–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hannington M, Herzig P, Scott S, Thompson G, Rona P (1991) Comparative mineralogy and geochemistry of gold-bearing sulfide deposits on the mid-ocean ridges. Mar Geol 101:217–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hannington MD, Galley AG, Herzig PM, Petersen S (1998) Comparison of the TAG mound and stockwork complex with Cyprus-type massive sulfide deposits. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results 158:389–415Google Scholar
  34. Hannington MD, Poulsen KH, Thompson JFH, Sillitoe RH (1999) Volcanogenic gold in the massive sulfide environment volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits: processes and examples in modern and ancient settings. Rev Econ Geol 8:325–356Google Scholar
  35. Haraguchi S, Ishii T (2007) Simultaneous boninitic and arc-tholeiitic volcanisms in the Izu forearc region during early arc volcanism, based on ODP Leg 125 Site 786. Contrib Mineral Petrol 153:509–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hattori KH, Guillot S (2003) Volcanic fronts form as a consequence of serpentinite dehydration in the forearc mantle wedge. Geology 31:525–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Herzig PM, Hannington MD (1995) Polymetallic massive sulfides at the modern seafloor: a review. Ore Geol Rev 10:95–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Herzig P, Hannington M, Arribas A Jr (1998) Sulfur isotopic composition of hydrothermal precipitates from the Lau back-arc: implications for magmatic contributions to seafloor hydrothermal systems. Mineral Deposita 33:226–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Honnorez JA, Jeffrey C, Honnorez-Guerstein BM, Laverne C, Muehlenbachs K, Saltzman E (1985) Stockwork-like sulfide mineralization in young oceanic crust; Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 504B. Initial Rep Deep Sea Drill Proj 83:263–282Google Scholar
  40. Huston DL, Large RR (1989) A chemical model for the concentration of gold in volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Ore Geol Rev 4:171–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huston D, Sie S, Suter G (1995) Selenium and its importance to the study of ore genesis: the theoretical basis and its application to volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits using pixeprobe analysis. Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Sect B Beam Interact Mater Atoms 104:476–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ishikawa Y, Sawaguchi T, Iwaya S, Horiuchi M (1976) Delineation of prospecting targets for Kuroko deposits based on. Min Geol 26:105–117Google Scholar
  43. Ixer RA, Alabaster T, Pearce JA (1984) Ore petrography and geochemistry of massive sulphide deposits within the Semail ophiolite, Oman. Trans Inst Min Metall Sect B Appl Earth Sci 93:114–124Google Scholar
  44. Jenner FE, O-Neill HSC, Arculus RJ, Mavrogenes JA (2010) The magnetite crisis in the evolution of arc-related magmas and the initial concentration of Au, Ag and Cu. J Petrol 51:2445–2464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jenner FE, Arculus RJ, Mavrogenes JA, Dyriw NJ, Nebel O, Hauri EH (2012) Chalcophile element systematics in volcanic glasses from the northwestern Lau Basin. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 13Google Scholar
  46. Jowitt SM, Jenkin GR, Coogan LA, Naden J (2012) Quantifying the release of base metals from source rocks for volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits: effects of protolith composition and alteration mineralogy. J Geochem Explor 118:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kamenetsky V, Binns R, Gemmell J, Crawford A, Mernagh T, Maas R, Steele D (2001) Parental basaltic melts and fluids in eastern Manus backarc basin: implications for hydrothermal mineralisation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 184:685–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keith M, Haase KM, Klemd R, Krumm S, Strauss H (2016) Systematic variations of trace element and sulfur isotope compositions in pyrite with stratigraphic depth in the Skouriotissa volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Chem Geol 423:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keith M, Haase KM, Klemd R, Smith DJ, Schwarz-Schampera U, Bach W (2018) Constraints on the source of Cu in a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system, Brothers volcano, Kermadec island arc. Contrib Mineral Petrol 173:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Large RR, Gemmell JB, Paulick H, Huston DL (2001) The alteration box plot: a simple approach to understanding the relationship between alteration mineralogy and lithogeochemistry associated with volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits. Econ Geol 96:957–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lee C-TA, Luffi P, Chin EJ, Bouchet R, Dasgupta R, Morton DM, le Roux V, Yin QZ, Jin D (2012) Copper systematics in arc magmas and implications for crust-mantle differentiation. Science (80- ) 336:64–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu Y, Samaha N-T, Baker DR (2007) Sulfur concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) in magmatic silicate melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71(7):1783–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maslennikov V, Maslennikova S, Large R, Danyushevsky L (2009) Study of trace element zonation in vent chimneys from the Silurian Yaman-Kasy volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit (Southern Urals, Russia) using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Econ Geol 104:1111–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mercier-Langevin P, Hannington MD, Dube B, Becu V (2011) The gold content of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Mineral Deposita 46:509–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mitchell JG, Peate D, Murton BJ, Pearce JA, Arculus RJ, Van der Laan SR (1992) K-Ar dating of samples from Sites 782 and 786 (Leg 125): the Izu-Bonin forearc region. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results 25:203–210Google Scholar
  56. Monecke T, Petersen S, Hannington MD, Grant H, Samson IM (2016) The minor element endowment of modern sea-floor massive sulfide deposits and comparison with deposits hosted in ancient volcanic successions. Rev Econ Geol 18:245–306Google Scholar
  57. Moss R, Scott SD, Binns RA (2001) Gold content of eastern Manus Basin volcanic rocks: implications for enrichment in associated hydrothermal precipitates. Econ Geol 96:91–107Google Scholar
  58. Müller W, Shelley M, Miller P, Broude S (2009) Initial performance metrics of a new custom-designed ArF excimer LA-ICPMS system coupled to a two-volume laser-ablation cell. J Anal At Spectrom 24:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mungall JE, Brenan JM, Godel B, Barnes SJ, Gaillard F (2015) Transport of metals and sulphur in magmas by flotation of sulphide melt on vapour bubbles. Nat Geosci 8:216–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Murton BJ, Peate DW, Arculus RJ, Pearce JA, Van der Laan S (1992) 12. Trace-element geochemistry of 786: the Izu-Bonin forearc region. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results 25:211–235Google Scholar
  61. Nesbitt BE, St. Louis RM, Muehlenbachs K (1987) Distribution of gold in altered basalts of DSDP Hole 504B. Can J Earth Sci 24:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Noll P, Newsom H, Leeman W, Ryan JG (1996) The role of hydrothermal fluids in the production of subduction zone magmas: evidence from siderophile and chalcophile trace elements and boron. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:587–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Park J-W, Campbell IH, Kim J, Moon J-W (2015) The role of late sulfide saturation in the formation of a Cu-and Au-rich magma: insights from the platinum group element geochemistry of Niuatahi-Motutahi lavas, Tonga rear arc. J Petrol 56:59–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Patten CGC, Barnes S-J, Mathez EA, Jenner FE (2013) Partition coefficients of chalcophile elements between sulfide and silicate melts and the early crystallization history of sulfide liquid: LA-ICP-MS analysis of MORB sulfide droplets. Chem Geol 358:170–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Patten CGC, Pitcairn IK, Teagle DA, Harris M (2016a) Mobility of Au and related elements during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust: implications for the sources of metals in VMS deposits. Mineral Deposita 51:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Patten CGC, Pitcairn IK, Teagle DAH, Harris M (2016b) Sulphide mineral evolution and metal mobility during alteration of the oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 1256D. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 193:132–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Patten CGC, Pitcairn IK, Teagle DAH (2017) Hydrothermal mobilisation of Au and other metals in supra-subduction oceanic crust: insights from the Troodos ophiolite. Ore Geol Rev 86:487–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Peach CL, Mathez EA, Keays RR (1990) Sulfide melt-silicate melt distribution coefficients for noble metals and other chalcophile elements as deduced from MORB: Implications for partial melting. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54(12):3379–3389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pearce JA, van der Laan SR, Arculus RJ, Murt BJ, Ishii T, Peate DW, Park IJ (1992) Boninite and harzburgite from Leg 125 (Bonin-Mariana forearc): a case study of magma genesis during the initial stages of subduction. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results 25:623–659Google Scholar
  70. Petersen S, Herzig P, Hannington MD (2000) Third dimension of a presently forming VMS deposit: TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26 N. Mineral Deposita 35:233–259Google Scholar
  71. Piercey SJ (2010) An overview of petrochemistry in the regional exploration for volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits. Geochem: Explo, Environ, Anal 10:1–18Google Scholar
  72. Piercey SJ (2011) The setting, style, and role of magmatism in the formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Mineral Deposita 46:449–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Piercey SJ, Jenner GA, Wilton DHC, et al (1997) The stratigraphy and geochemistry of the southern Pacquet Harbour Group, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland; implications for mineral exploration. Curr Res NewfGoogle Scholar
  74. Pilote J-L, Piercey SJ (2018) Petrogenesis of the Rambler Rhyolite Formation: controls on the Ming VMS deposit and geodynamic implications for the Taconic Seaway, Newfoundland Appalachians, Canada. Am J Sci 318:640–683oundl Labrador Dep Mines Energy 119:139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pitcairn IK, Warwick PE, Milton JA, Teagle DAH (2006a) Method for ultra-low-level analysis of gold in rocks. Anal Chem 78:1290–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pitcairn IK, Teagle DAH, Craw D, Olivo GR, Kerrich R, Brewer TS (2006b) Sources of metals and fluids in orogenic gold deposits: insights from the Otago and Alpine Schists, New Zealand. Econ Geol 101:1525–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pokrovski GS, Akinfiev NN, Borisova AY, Zotov AV, Kouzmanov K (2014) Gold speciation and transport in geological fluids: insights from experiments and physical-chemical modelling. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 402(1):9–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Seewald JS, Seyfried WE Jr (1990) The effect of temperature on metal mobility in subseafloor hydrothermal systems: constraints from basalt alteration experiments. Earth Planet Sci Lett 101:388–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Seyfried W, Ding K, Berndt ME, Chen X (1999) Experimental and theoretical controls on the composition of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids. Rev Econ Geol 8:181–200Google Scholar
  80. Shanks WC III (2001) Stable isotopes in seafloor hydrothermal systems: vent fluids, hydrothermal deposits, hydrothermal alteration, and microbial processes. Rev Mineral Geochem 43:469–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sillitoe RH, Hannington MD, Thompson JFH (1996) High sulfidation deposits in the volcanogenic massive sulfide environment. Econ Geol 91:204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Skulski T, Castonguay S, McNicoll V et al (2010) Tectonostratigraphy of the Baie Verte oceanic tract and its ophiolite cover sequence on the Baie Verte Peninsula. Newfoundl Labrador Dep Nat Resour Geol Surv Rep 1:315–337Google Scholar
  83. Stakes DS, Taylor HP (2003) Oxygen isotope and chemical studies on the origin of large plagiogranite bodies in northern Oman, and their relationship to the overlying massive sulphide deposits. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 218:315–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stern RA, Syme EC, Bailes AH, Lucas SB (1995) Paleoproterozoic (1.90–1.86 Ga) arc volcanism in the Flin Flon Belt, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada. Contrib Mineral Petrol 119:117–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sun W, Arculus RJ, Kamenetsky VS, Binns RA (2004) Release of gold-bearing fluids in convergent margin magmas prompted by magnetite crystallization. Nature 431:975–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sun W, Huang R-f, Li H, Hu Y-b, Zhang C-c, Sun S-j, Zhang L-p, Ding X, Li C-y, Zartman RE (2015) Porphyry deposits and oxidized magmas. Ore Geol Rev 65:97–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Syme EC (1998) Ore-associated and barren rhyolites in the central Flin Flon Belt: case study of the Flin Flon Mine sequence. Manitoba Energy & Mines, Geological Services: 1–32Google Scholar
  88. Syme EC, Bailes AH (1993) Stratigraphic and tectonic setting of early Proterozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Flin Flon, Manitoba. Econ Geol 88(3):566–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Syme EC, Lucas SB, Bailes AH, Stern RA (2000) Contrasting arc and MORB-like assemblages in the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon Belt, Manitoba, and the role of intra-arc extension in localizing volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits. Can J Earth Sci 36:1767–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Takahashi N, Suyehiro K, Shinohara M (1998) Implications from the seismic crustal structure of the northern Izu-Bonin arc. Island Arc 7(3):383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Teagle D, Alt J, Umino S, Miyashita S, Banerjee N, Wilson D, the Expedition 309/312 Scientists (2006) Superfast spreading rate crust 2 and 3. Proceedings of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. 309 312, 50Google Scholar
  92. Terashima S, Yuasa M, Nohara M (1994) Gold content of submarine volcanic rocks from the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc. Resour Geol 44:241–247Google Scholar
  93. Timm C, de Ronde CE, Leybourne MI, Layton-Matthews D, Graham IJ (2012) Sources of chalcophile and siderophile elements in Kermadec arc lavas. Econ Geol 107:1527–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Webber AP, Roberts S, Taylor RN, Pitcairn IK (2013) Golden plumes: substantial gold enrichment of oceanic crust during ridge-plume interaction. Geology 41:87–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wilson SA, Ridley WI, Koenig AE (2002) Development of sulfide calibration standards for the laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. J Anal At Spectrom 17:406–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser CC, Viljoen F, Petersen S, Vorster C (2015) Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: an in-situ LA-ICP-MS study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 159:16–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yang K, Scott SD (2002) Magmatic degassing of volatiles and ore metals into a hydrothermal system on the modern sea floor of the eastern Manus back-arc basin, western Pacific. Econ Geol 97:1079–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Applied Geosciences Geochemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  5. 5.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  6. 6.Geological Survey of FinlandEspooFinland
  7. 7.Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre SouthamptonUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations