The polymetallic magmatic-hydrothermal Xiangdong and Dalong systems in the W–Sn–Cu–Pb–Zn–Ag Dengfuxian orefield, SE China: constraints from geology, fluid inclusions, H–O–S–Pb isotopes, and sphalerite Rb–Sr geochronology

  • Yi-qu Xiong
  • Yong-jun ShaoEmail author
  • Jing-wen Mao
  • Shi-chong Wu
  • Hao-di Zhou
  • Ming-hong Zheng


Vein-type deposits, including the Xiangdong W–Sn and Dalong Pb–Zn deposits, occur in or near the Dengfuxian composite granite pluton, comprising predominantly Triassic and minor Jurassic intrusions. Liquid-rich NaCl-aqueous inclusions, vapor-rich NaCl-aqueous inclusions, liquid-rich CaCl2-NaCl-aqueous inclusions, two-phase CH4-rich inclusions, three-phase CO2-H2O inclusions, and three-phase calcite-bearing inclusions occur in the quartz veins at Xiangdong, whereas only liquid-rich NaCl-aqueous inclusions occur at Dalong. The Xiangdong veins formed at temperatures near 241 °C, from NaCl-CaCl2-H2O-CH4-CO2 fluids averaging 11.4 wt% NaCl eq. The Dalong deposit formed at temperatures near 186 °C from NaCl-H2O(-CH4) fluids averaging 6.2 wt% NaCl eq. The ore-forming mechanisms at Xiangdong include fluid immiscibility during stage I, fluid mixing during stage II, and mixing with meteoric water accompanied by cooling during stage III. The ore-forming mechanisms at Dalong include cooling and mixing with meteoric water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest that the ore-forming fluids from both deposits originated as mixtures of magmatic water with various amounts of meteoric water. Sulfur and strontium isotopes suggest an igneous origin for both deposits and possibly mixing with S and Sr from sedimentary rock for Dalong. Lead isotopes indicate that ore metals originated mainly from the upper crust with minor mantle contributions. Sphalerite from Dalong gives a Rb-Sr isochron age of 151.6 ± 7.1 Ma, consistent with the mineralization age of Xiangdong. Both the W–Sn and Pb–Zn ore-forming events are closely related to Late Jurassic magmatism, which occurred in an environment of lithospheric extension and thinning.


Fluid inclusions Isotopes Magmatic-hydrothermal system Dengfuxian South China 



This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC0601404), the National Natural Science Foundation of China Project (No. 41803044 and No. 91755208), the “Project of Innovation-Driven Plan” of the Central South University (no. 2015CX008), “Project of Innovation Foundation For Postgraduates” of the Central South University (no. 2016zzts082), China Geological Survey Integrated Exploration project (no. 12120114052101), the Construction Project of National Technical Standard System of Mineral Resources and Reserves (no. CB2017-4-10), and the Project of Hunan Provincial Science and Technology Plan (no. 2017TP1029). The authors express gratitude to Editor-in-Chief Bernd Lehmann, Associate Editor Hu Ruizhong, Christopher J. Eastoe, Chi Guoxiang, Jiang Shao-yong, Zhao Kuidong, Cheng Yanbo, Wu Qianhong, Kong Hua, Dr. Duan Ruichun, Xiong Suofei, Xu Lin-gang, Liu Qingquan, and anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions, and Zhu Haofeng, Yan Qi, and Cheng Luping for help in field work and analysis. Special thanks to Xiong Zhengrong, Chen Fanghong, Xiong Lixia, and Zhang Lingzhi for raising twin babies.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi-qu Xiong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yong-jun Shao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jing-wen Mao
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shi-chong Wu
    • 4
  • Hao-di Zhou
    • 1
    • 5
  • Ming-hong Zheng
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring, Ministry of EducationCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Earth Resources, Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploration of Strategic Mineral ResourcesChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.MLR Key Laboratory of Metallogeny and Mineral Assessment, Institute of Mineral ResourcesCAGSBeijingChina
  4. 4.416 Geological TeamBureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development of Hunan ProvinceZhuzhouChina
  5. 5.Hunan Key Laboratory of Land and Resources Evaluation and UtilizationHunan Planning Institute of Land and ResourcesChangshaChina
  6. 6.Non-Ferrous Metals and Nuclear Industry Geological Exploration Bureau of GuizhouGuiyangChina

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